Alaska wildfire destroys dozens of homes, menaces highway By Steve Quinn3 hours agoTrees are consumed by flames as an out of control wildfire burns near Willow, Alaska, in this picture …By Steve Quinn JUNEAU, Alaska (Reuters) – A fast-spreading Alaska wildfire has destroyed up to 45 homes and forced authorities to restrict traffic on a major highway connecting two of the state’s largest cities, state officials said on Monday.As many as 200 firefighters have been battling the 6,500-acre fire with more specially trained teams en route from the Lower 48 states, Alaska Forestry Division spokesman Sam Harrel said.Crews have been attacking the fire on the ground and by air, getting help from the three Alaska National Guard Blackhawk helicopters, according to state reports.Harrel said the fire was ignited by human activity but the specific cause remains under investigation. Dry and warm weather accelerated the blaze, he said.The fire started early on Sunday afternoon near Willow, about 40 miles north of Anchorage and where the Iditarod, Alaska’s famed sled-dog race, typically kicks off.A structure is consumed by flames as an out of control wildfire burns near Willow, Alaska, in this p …It initially covered about two acres, but within 11 hours had ballooned to 6,500 acres, according to the forestry division reports. Harrel said flames quickly jumped from one 30- to 40-foot spruce tree to the next, forcing a temporary closure of the Parks Highway, which links Anchorage in the state’s south central region to Fairbanks in Alaska’s eastern interior.Residents along a 14-mile stretch have been evacuated.By Monday morning, portions of the road re-opened to single-lane traffic with vehicles needing a pilot car to guide them, Harrel said. The highway remains subject to intermittent closures, Harrel said.As of Monday morning, Harrel said about 25 primary homes had been destroyed and as many as 20 secondary residences were also lost.There are about 170 residential structures in the evacuation area, according to the Matanuska-Susitna Borough. These homes range from year-round residences to seasonal cabins, said borough spokeswoman Patty Sullivan.The borough also reported more than 200 people checking into evacuation centers, including residents and tourists, Sullivan said.(Editing by Cynthia Johnston and Sandra Maler)
Alaska wildfire quickly grows, forces homes to evacuate By MARK THIESSEN and RACHEL D’ORO4 minutes ago HOUSTON, Alaska (AP) — An Alaska wildfire that has mushroomed in size was prompting help Monday from people offering their homes to scores of displaced residents and their animals.The fire north of Anchorage has led to the voluntary evacuation of up to 1,700 structures and has struck the heart of sled dog country, including 15 or so mushers who call Willow home.About 500 dogs have been rescued, according to Matanuska-Susitna Borough Assembly member Vern Halter, a former Iditarod musher.About 200 of those dogs ended up with four-time Iditarod champion Martin Buser at his kennels in Big Lake about 20 miles from the fire. He also was taking in displaced residents, including veteran Iditarod musher DeeDee Jonrowe, who lost her home.”Everybody’s relieved that their dogs are safe and here, but the people that have lost their homes, they are dejected,” Buser said Monday afternoon in a phone interview. „And people that their homes got spared are elated.”When the fire began raging Sunday, the word went out that dogs needed rescuing, said Steve Charles, a member of the Willow Dog Mushers’ Association. People went out with dog boxes on the backs of their trucks to help rescue hundreds of dogs, according to Charles, who spent the day doing that. When he returned to his home south of Willow, the fire began threatening his neighborhood.Steve Charles sits alongside his sled dog, Bridger, at an American Red Cross evacuation center in Ho …”I didn’t realize I would have to be evacuating myself,” he said at the American Red Cross evacuation center at Houston Middle School. His own dogs were along a chain line attached to a fence. Charles said he’s heard from neighbors that his house was spared.On Monday, Gov. Bill Walker took an aerial tour of the fire, which has burned at least 25 homes and up to 20 other structures including sheds and outhouses. Walker later said he accepted the Matanuska-Susitna Borough’s request for state disaster declaration for the affected area.Fire information spokesman Tim Mowry said 210 residents signed in at evacuation centers in Houston and near Talkeetna. Officials said Monday afternoon that the fire was zero percent contained, with the weather expected to continue to be warm and dry. One firefighter has been treated for heat exhaustion.Residents with properties away from the fire have been taking to Facebook on a site dedicated to the fire to offer their homes and properties to displaced people.Among them was Kendra Zamzow, who was offering space for people and animals on her 2-acre property in the community of Chickaloon about 50 miles southeast of the fire.Alaska Gov. Bill Walker gestures during a news conference discussing a wildfire that is threatening …”I have plenty of room,” she said.Robin Edgell only had time to grab one thing when she fled her home in Willow: „Pictures, the only things that can’t be replaced,” she said outside a motorhome parked at the Red Cross evacuation center.The blaze was reported at just 2 acres Sunday afternoon and had burned through more than 10 square miles by early Monday, officials said. It chewed through forest and brush around Willow, in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough about 40 miles from Anchorage.”It’s got a little wind behind, it has a lot of fuel and it’s grown,” said Tim Mowry, spokesman for the Alaska Interagency Coordination Center.More than 2,000 rural residents are spread along about 20 miles of the Parks Highway, which was intermittently closed.Southbound traffic, on the left, is allowed to move on the Parks Highway near Willow, Alaska, Monday …The blaze has been dubbed the Sockeye Fire for the avenue in Willow where it started and where homes were evacuated quickly after it was reported. The response was swift and strong because of the fire’s proximity to homes.”We’re throwing everything we can at it at this point,” Mowry said.Tankers have unloaded retardant, and a helicopter dropped loads of water as more aircraft planned to join the fight. Nearly 200 personnel were battling the blaze and more were expected._This story has been corrected to show up to 1,700 structures are affected, not homes.
ACAPULCO, Mexico (AP) — Schools stayed closed and shelters stood ready along Mexico’s southwestern coast Monday while Hurricane Carlos swirled offshore, battering beaches with high waves and strong winds.The storm grew back into a marginal hurricane, but the U.S. National Hurricane Center said it was likely to fade to tropical storm force by Wednesday while traveling roughly parallel to the coastline and brushing past the Puerto Vallarta region.Carlos was centered about 100 miles (165 kilometers) southwest of the port city of Lazaro Cardenas late Monday with top sustained winds of 75 mph (120 kph), the Hurricane Center said. The storm was moving west-northwest about 6 mph (9 kph).Big waves churned up by the storm lashed Acapulco over the weekend, swamping boats and washing away more than a dozen small palm-frond huts, and strong winds knocked down some trees and billboards. No major damage or deaths were reported.Officials said schools would be closed Monday and urged residents to stay inside their homes. Authorities for Guerrero state said 507 shelters, including 98 in Acapulco, had been prepared in coastal areas.Rain accumulations of 6 to 10 inches (15 to 25 centimeters) were possible in southwestern Mexico, with a chance for up to 15 inches (37 centimeters) in some areas, the Hurricane Center said.A tropical storm warning and a hurricane watch were in effect from Punta San Telmo to Playa Perula.
Indonesia evacuates more villagers from volcano area By BINSAR BAKKARA14 hours agoTANAH KARO, Indonesia (AP) — Authorities in western Indonesia on Monday evacuated hundreds of villagers living near a volcano that is spewing hot ash down its slopes almost daily.Government volcanologist Gede Suantika said at least 28 hot ash avalanches occurred Monday at Mount Sinabung on Sumatra, one of Indonesia’s main islands. There are indications the crater’s lava dome continues to grow in size, Gede said.Subur Tambun, head of the local disaster mitigation agency, said hundreds of residents were being evacuated Monday from several villages, bringing the number of people moved in recent weeks to more than 3,000.”They have to be moved because of increasing activities of the volcano in past days,” Subur said.Evacuees included villagers living between 3 to 5 kilometers (2 to 3 miles) from the crater on its eastern and southeastern flanks. A small number of people who’d returned to villages within 3 kilometers also were evacuated again.Jefri Bangun, a 33-year-old coffee farmer in Mardinding village, about 3 kilometers from the crater, is one of thousands of villagers who were reluctant to leave the slopes.A farmer picks coffee berries at his family-owned plantation as Mount Sinabung is seen in the backgr …”We need money to live,” said Bangun, who vowed to keep coming back to tend his plants.Authorities have been closely monitoring Sinabung since June 2, when its status was raised to the highest alert level due to the growing size and unstable condition of its lava dome, then estimated at 3 million cubic meters (106 million cubic feet).Subur said 99 families were moved from a village on Saturday when the mountain unleashed a new powerful burst, sending hot ash as far as 3 kilometers (2 miles) down its southeastern slopes.Mount Sinabung is one of about 130 active volcanoes in Indonesia, which is prone to seismic upheaval due to its location on the Pacific „Ring of Fire,” an arc of volcanoes and fault lines encircling the Pacific Basin.The 2,460-meter (8,070-foot) volcano has sporadically erupted since 2010, after being dormant for 400 years. An eruption last year killed at least 17 people.Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, spokesman for the National Disaster Mitigation Agency, said almost 2,800 residents were evacuated when the mountain’s alert status was raised two weeks ago.Nearly 6,200 other people have been living in temporary shelters since last year, Nugroho said._This story has been updated to correct the elevation of the volcano to 2,460 meters (8,070 feet).
Watch What Happens When Lightning Strikes a Beach In-Flight Shock: What It Looks Like When a Plane’s Struck by LightningLightning strikes. (Photo: Clint Belvins/YouTube)Luckily, nobody was on the shore when this video was taken by YouTuber Clint Belvins — but that’s not always the case in lightning strikes. Last week, a boy was struck by lightning while vacationing at Daytona Beach and was then hospitalized. It is undetermined whether the video was shot the same day the boy was struck.WATCH: Wipeout! Surfing With Famed Chef Eric Ripert in Puerto Rico. Not as Easy as It LooksA Broad Abroad Surfing with Eric Ripert, A Broad Abroad On this episode of ” Broad Abroad”, Paula Froelich and her friend and master chef Eric Ripert, take on the six foot swells in Rincon, Puerto Rico. For more episodes of „A Broad Abroad”, please visit: https://screen.yahoo.com/a-broad-abroad/Let Yahoo Travel inspire you every day. Hang out with us on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest. Check out our original adventure travel series A Broad Abroad.If you think it’s okay to go swimming during a thunderstorm, think again.A recent slow-motion video taken in the coastal Florida town of Daytona Beach reveals what happens when lightning hits water. The result is amazing — and terrifying.The footage begins, looking like a typical thunderstorm, then a streak of lightning emerges and touches the water, bursting into an amplified stream of light. When the voltage disappears, it leaves behind a trace of fire and smoke in its place.Related:
Shark Bites Two: Possible Explanations for Attackby Elizabeth Palermo, Staff Writer | June 15, 2015 07:27pm ETA trip to the beach turned terrifying for two young people on Sunday when each was attacked by a shark while wading in waist-deep water off the coast of Oak Island, North Carolina. Experts in marine science say the closeness of the two attacks was quite unusual.Both the 12-year-old girl and 16-year-old-boy survived their separate attacks, which occurred 2 miles (3.2 kilometers) apart and within 90 minutes of one another. These incidents follow on the heels of another shark attack that took place last Thursday (June 11) at Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina, a barrier island about 15 miles (24 km) west of Oak Island, according to a report by the Associated Press.There haven’t been so many severe attacks, so close together, in decades, said Dan Abel, a professor of marine science at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, South Carolina. [Great White Shark High 5? Here’s What Really Happened]”There were some fatalities associated with shark bites in North Carolina and Virginia waters over a decade ago. But, typically, along this part of the coast, these kinds of interactions are rare,” Abel told Live Science. However, non-life-threatening shark bites are not that uncommon in the waters off the southeast coast of the United States, he noted.”Many shark biologists distinguish between a bite and an attack based on severity. Bites will usually occur with blacktip sharks in shallow water,” Abel said. „The shark thinks it’s pursuing a fish, but it bites your foot or your hand, and it immediately releases you.”However, the young people who were attacked on Sunday weren’t just bitten and then released. In fact, each victim lost an arm to what Abel believes was a single bull shark. It’s improbable that a low-likelihood event such as a shark attack would occur twice in such a short time frame and involve two different sharks, Abel said.Bull sharks hunt in shallow waters all along the U.S. East Coast, and this is one of the shark species most often involved in fatal attacks against humans (behind only tiger sharks and great whites). Along with sand tiger sharks, tiger sharks, hammerheads and many other species of shark, bull sharks spend much of their time hunting for food close to the eastern coastline.”The Atlantic coast in the summer is a fairly ‘sharky’ place,” Abel said. „There are dangerous sharks in areas where there are rarely any attacks against humans. And there are areas where there may be fewer sharks but there are attacks.”Trying to figure out why a shark would attack several people off the coast of North Carolina while other swimmers a bit further north or south remained safe is, as Abel put it, „not good science.” But there are factors that can contribute to the likelihood of a shark attack in a particular area, he said.As the water warms in the summer months along the Atlantic coast, more people venture out into the water, providing more opportunities for humans and sharks to interact. There are also environmental factors to consider, Abel said. The attacks occurred just two days before a new moon, and during this lunar phase, the difference in water depth between low tide and high tide is greater than it is during most other lunar phases. Sharks may come closer to shore during the new moon phase, he said.Both attacks occurred in the evening, during an incoming tide (i.e., when the water was rising up the beach). Biologists believe that more sharks may make their way closer to shore during incoming tides, and it’s known that sharks are more active during what Abel called „transition times,” or dusk and dawn.Many who have commented on news reports regarding the attacks noted that sharks may have been drawn closer to the shore of Oak Island because fishermen were trying to lure in fish by throwing chum, or bait, into the water from a nearby pier. Other commenters noted that large schools of fish were seen off the coast in that area, which suggests that larger numbers of predators may have been close behind.”Sharks have an array of senses that are very sensitive, but vision in murky water is not one of them. So they sense something as a potential prey item, and, if you’re unfortunately the victim, it’s not a happy result,” Abel said.Researchers are currently working on humane solutions for keeping sharks and swimmers apart from one another, Abel said. But in the meantime, he had a few suggestions to help individuals stay safer: Stay out of the water in the early morning and at dusk. Avoid swimming near piers or anywhere else where fishermen are baiting the water. If you see large schools of fish, you should exit the water, he said. And lastly, if you hear of a shark nearby, it’s a good idea to wait a few hours (or even longer) before going for a swim.However, he also said, „What scares me going to the beach is the sun.I’m more likely to get melanoma [than get eaten by a shark].” He continued, „I’m also afraid of jet skis, getting hit in the head with a surfboard, stepping on a sting ray, getting run over by an SUV in the parking lot or getting a bacterial infection from the wastewater that pollutes our [ocean]. Those kinds of things scare me more than the sharks do.”Follow Elizabeth Palermo @techEpalermo. Follow Live Science@livescience, Facebook & Google+. Original article on Live Science.
Beachgoers lose limbs in shallow-water shark attacks3 hours ago Associated Press Videos Shark Attacks Injure Two Teens in North CarolinaAssociated Press Shark Attacks Injure Two Teens in North Carolina Moran Atias Teases New Season of ‘Tyrant’OAK ISLAND, N.C. (AP) — Beachgoers cautiously returned to the ocean Monday after two young people lost limbs in separate, life-threatening shark attacks in the same town in North Carolina.A 12-year-old girl lost her left arm below the elbow and suffered a leg injury Sunday afternoon; then about an hour and 20 minutes later and 2 miles away, a shark bit off the left arm above the elbow of a 16-year-old boy.Both had been swimming about 20 yards offshore, in waist-deep water.A shark expert says the best response after one of these extremely rare attacks is to temporarily close beaches that lack lifeguards. Local officials acknowledged Monday that they didn’t make a concerted effort to warn people up and down the town’s beaches until after the second attack.Most beachgoers near the spot alongside a fishing pier where the first victim was attacked were staying in very shallow water or on the sand Monday. Holly Helmig, 39, of Raleigh watched her 6-year-old son bobbing on a boogie board in shin-deep water instead of splashing in the waves farther out. Her 5-year-old daughter Zoe shoveled sand in a bucket next to her.”I feel bad for the shark but I think he’s hiding somewhere in the ocean,” Zoe said.Emergency responders assist a teenage girl at the scene of a shark attack in Oak Island, N.C., Sunda …Deputies saw a 7-foot shark Sunday in an area between the two places where the attacks happened, Sheriff John Ingram said. Sharks of that size are common along the coast, Oak Island Town Manager Tim Holloman said, and authorities are not trying to hunt one down. But safety officials scouted for sharks from boats and a helicopter Monday. One was spotted Monday morning, Holloman said.Recordings of 911 calls released Monday include several people calling each attack in, some sounding nearly hysterical. The victims — a girl from Asheboro and a boy from Colorado Springs, Colorado — were bleeding heavily, and other beachgoers applied makeshift tourniquets.”His arm is gone!” one upset female caller near where the boy was attacked.Randy Giles, 52, was sitting on the sand with his fiancee, Schalane Wolford, when he heard the girl scream, and called 911 immediately, before she was carried to the beach.”At first I thought it was a jellyfish sting, but when (the man next to her) pulled her out of the water, she was bleeding and a lot of her arm was bit off, so I knew it was a shark,” Giles said.People assist a teenage girl at the scene of a shark attack in Oak Island, N.C., Sunday, June 14, 20 …As people screamed to get out of the water, Giles said Wolford ran over to give the family her towels, and someone else used a cord from a boogie board as a tourniquet for the girl’s arm.After the second attack, town employees drove along beaches urging people to get out, but the instructions were voluntary and not mandatory. The town has no ordinance authorizing officials to order the surf cleared even if sharks present a threat, Holloman said. As a result, they take their direction from a state law guaranteeing public access to beaches.Just four days earlier, a 13-year-old girl suffered small lacerations on her foot from a shark bite on Ocean Isle Beach, about 15 miles from Oak Island. Both towns are on barrier islands just off the coast.Surgeons amputated the girl’s left arm below her elbow, and she has tissue damage to her lower left leg. The boy’s left arm was removed below his left shoulder. Both were in good condition Monday at the New Hanover Regional Medical Center in Wilmington, where Dr. Borden Hooks operated on both victims.There were only 72 unprovoked shark attacks on humans around the world in 2014, including 52 in the U.S., according to the International Shark Attack File at the Florida Museum of Natural History. Three of them — all outside the U.S. — were fatal.Shark researcher George Burgess, who oversees the database, said he’s aware of only two other multiple shark attacks on the same beach in one day. „It may be that there are big schools of fish out in the surf zone that are attracting the sharks,” he said.Even if lifeguards were on duty, the amount of area closed and the duration of a closure is always a question, said Tom Gill, spokesman for the U.S. Lifesaving Association.”At the end of the day, it’s the ocean,” he said. „It’s an uncontrolled environment, which is why we think lifeguards are so important.”Conditions that contribute to shark attacks include: swimming near piers, murky water that confuses sharks and beaches with few people in the water, Gill said._Associated Press writers Jack Jones in Columbia, South Carolina; and Jonathan Drew and Martha Waggoner in Raleigh, North Carolina, contributed to this report.
Origin of Mysterious ‘Cannon Earthquakes’ in Red Sea Found By Charles Q. Choi8 hours agoShallow waters of the Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia reveal coral reefs under the surface and the texture and movements of surface waters.Mysterious earthquakes that sound like cannon blasts have been puzzling people for decades, and now their origin has been traced way back to a giant block of volcanic rock hundreds of millions of years old, researchers say.For generations, Bedouin nomads living in the region of the Egyptian coastal resort Abu Dabbab, by the Red Sea, have heard noises that sound like cannon blasts accompanying small quakes in the area.”The name of Abu Dabbab are Arabic words that mean ‘the Father of Knocks,’ which is related to the sound heard in this area,” Sami El Khrepy, a seismologist at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, told Live Science.Previous research had found that rocks in the region are about twice as warm as they are elsewhere in Egypt, suggesting that rising magma may be related to the origin of these „cannon earthquakes.” However, there has been no volcanic activity in the region in at least 65 million years, so the scientists ruled out that possibility. [The 10 Biggest Earthquakes in History]So, to learn more about what could be causing these noisy earthquakes, El Khrepy and his colleagues analyzed the structure of the crust at Abu Dabbab as well as data collected by the National Seismic Network of Egypt, which was completed in 2002. Then, they applied a technique known as seismic tomography, which uses information on the speed of seismic waves to create a 3D map of rock types in the area — similar to the way ultrasound can produce images of pregnancies.Earthquake swarms are common near Abu Dabbab. However, most of these quakes are weak, ranging in magnitude from 0.3 to 3.5. The largest well-documented earthquakes in the area, which reached magnitude 6.1 and magnitude 5.1, happened in 1955 and 1984, respectively.The scientists found that the earthquakes at Abu Dabbab occur along an imaginary line that extends from the coast into the Red Sea. This seismic activity is apparently caused by an active fault that lies below a 6-mile-deep (10 kilometers) block of rigid volcanic or igneous rock that’s at least 540 million years old. The fault originated from the rifting of the Earth that created the Red Sea that began about 30 million years ago. (The African and Arabian tectonic plates have beenspreading apart slowly in a rifting process for the past 30 million years.)The researchers said the surface of the block slides along active parts of the fault, lubricated by water from the Red Sea that has penetrated the crust.”We think the large and rigid block of igneous crust acts as a sort of broadcaster, allowing the full sounds of seismic movement to rise through the rock with little weakening of the acoustic signal,” El Khrepy said. „The high-frequency sounds of earthquakes can then be heard by humans at the surface.”The scientists detailed their findings today (June 15) in the journal Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.Follow Live Science @livescience, Facebook & Google+. Originally published on Live Science.
Paradise Avoided: Why Largest Dinosaurs Skipped the Tropics By Charles Q. Choi5 hours agoEarly carnivorous dinosaurs (background) were small and rare, while other reptiles like long-snouted …Giant dinosaurs steered clear of the tropics for tens of millions of years because wild climate swings there were too much for them to handle, researchers say.This finding could shed light on troubles that climate change might bring in the next few centuries, scientists added.Dinosaurs emerged about 230 million years ago in the late Triassic period. They came to dominate life on land for 135 million years during the subsequent Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, until a cosmic impact brought a cataclysmic end to the Age of Reptiles about 65 million years ago.Within 15 million years after dinosaurs first appeared, multitudes of dinosaur species had evolved. Inexplicably, the giant long-necked, long-tailed, vegetarian dinosaurs known as sauropods — the largest creatures to ever walk the Earth — were rare in the low latitudes around the equator for up to 30 million years after their origin, even though they dominated high latitudes before then. [Images: One of the World’s Biggest Dinosaurs Discovered]”For several decades, researchers have noticed a curious case — large plant-eating dinosaurs seemed to be much more common at high latitudes during the Triassic,” study lead author Jessica Whiteside, a geochemist at the University of Southampton in England, told Live Science. „However, it has only been in the past decade that we’ve realized they’re completely missing from the tropics, where only a few small carnivorous dinosaurs dwelled.”Reconstructing dino-scapes To help solve this mystery, Whiteside and her colleagues analyzed rocks from a location known as Ghost Ranch in New Mexico (which inspired famed artist Georgia O’Keeffe’s landscape paintings). The researchers focused on the multicolored cliffs of the Chinle Formation, which are a common sight at places such as the Painted Desert at Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona.For nine years, the investigators studied the rocks deposited by rivers and streams between 205 million and 215 million years ago, during the late Triassic, when the Americas and other land masses of the world were bound together in the supercontinent Pangea. Back then, the Ghost Ranch site resided near the equator at about the same latitude as the southernmost tip of India does today. The site is rich with fossils from the late Triassic.The scientists reconstructed the first detailed look at the climate and ecology during the emergence of the dinosaurs by looking at a variety of types of data from the rocks. Fossil charcoal helped the scientists deduce wildfire temperatures; fossil bones, pollen and spores helped them figure out the kinds of animals and plants living in the region; isotopes of carbon and oxygen from fossil organic matter helped researchers estimate levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and how much vegetation existed there at the time.”Each dataset complements the others, and they all point towards similar conditions,” Whitesidesaid in a statement. „I think this is one of the major strengths of our study.”Dinosaurs were rare among the fossils at Ghost Ranch, accounting for less than 15 percent of vertebrates, or animals with backbones. The dinosaurs were outnumbered in diversity, abundance and body size by the reptiles known as pseudosuchians, the lineage that gave rise to crocodiles and alligators. The few dinosaurs at the site were mostly small carnivores. [In Images: Ancient Monsters of the Sea]Plant fossils helped fill in the picture. Different groups of plants at Ghost Ranch often alternated from common to rare, as suggested by shifting abundances of different types of pollen and spores. This hinted at repeated sudden changes in climate. In addition, the way that levels of carbon isotopes went up and down over time suggested that levels of vegetation could rise and fall depending on strong fluctuations in rainfall.Fossil charcoal suggested that raging wildfires every few dozen years could reach temperatures of up to about 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit (600 degrees Celsius). These may have been due to abrupt shifts in climate that drove massive plant die-offs and fueled hotter fires.Climate swings The new findings suggest that the tropics in the late Triassic possessed a highly unpredictable hot climate that could swing between wet seasons in some years and extreme droughts in others. „The conditions would have been something similar to the arid Western United States today, although there would have been trees and smaller plants near streams and rivers and forests during humid times,” Whiteside said in the statement.This harsh, fluctuating climate and its repeated wildfires would have made it difficult for abundant vegetation to grow and survive, preventing giant herbivores from invading the region. „Only small two-legged carnivorous dinosaurs such as Coelophysis could survive,” Whiteside said in the statement.This highly unpredictable hot and dry climate was linked with high atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide that were „four to six times that of modern levels, but similar to levels predicted for 100 to 200 years in the future,” Whiteside said. „These data therefore suggest there are potentially profound challenges to human sustainability in the future if we experience the high carbon dioxide conditions predicted to develop in the coming 100 to 200 years.”In the future, scientists could look at other tropical, late Triassic sites, Whiteside said.She and her colleagues detailed their findings online June 15 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.Follow Live Science @livescience, Facebook & Google+. Originally published on Live Science.
How the climate debate keeps us from just letting science be science chriscmooney.Recently , the climate world received stunning news. Top National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration scientists published adjustments to their temperature dataset that, in effect, took away what has long been the number one doubter argument — the notion that global warming has “paused” or slowed down over the past 15 years or so.It’s hard to overstate just how big a deal the “pause” argument was to those who continue to challenge mounting science on the human role in global warming. It even made its way to politicians like Ted Cruz, who has argued that global warming in effect stopped back in 1998.But the “pause” wasn’t just touted by doubters — it was repeatedly studied, in paper after published paper, by scientists themselves, who were seeking to explain what seemed to be a major mystery: why temperatures weren’t rising as fast as expected. And “pause” or not, these studies threw off large volumes of new knowledge, including about a variety of natural factors that can slow the rate of warming, such as changes in the Pacific ocean and volcanic eruptions.All of which underscores a recurrently thorny area in the climate debate: Issues characterized by real and deep scientific uncertainty. On the one hand, scientists are thrilled to publish papers about such topics, in areas where there’s true doubt as to what’s actually happening. That’s where reputations are made. It’s also where research is most intellectually interesting and challenging.But on the other hand — and as a recent paper on the exaggeration of the “pause” by University of Bristol psychologist Stephan Lewandowsky, Harvard science historian Naomi Oreskes and a team of other scholars notes —skeptics and doubters often use uncertainty very differently. They seized on scientific statements about the “pause” and took them to mean something they really didn’t. For instance, even if there really had been a “pause,” it would never have meant that we shouldn’t worry about global warming —only that its rate was proceeding a little slower than anticipated, over a relatively short period of time.Just consider how a major scientific body — the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change — treated the “pause,” compared with how a major politician (Ted Cruz) did. The IPCC noted in 2013 that while temperatures over the last 15 years had indeed risen more slowly, “Due to natural variability, trends based on short records are very sensitive to the beginning and end dates and do not in general reflect long-term climate trends.”By contrast, Cruz remarked that “many of the alarmists on global warming, they’ve got a problem cause the science doesn’t back them up. And in particular, satellite data demonstrate for the last 17 years, there’s been zero warming. None whatsoever.”Lewandowsky and Oreskes and their colleagues even suggest that scientists have been in a sense empowering skeptics through their publications on the “pause.” Their paper argues that some studies of it actually represented a “seepage” of skeptic argument into the mainstream scientific literature, as scientists were subtly swayed by a broader public discourse that featured widely blazoned skeptical claims.I think that’s probably true, but I also think many scientists are lured in by uncertainty in another way — through simple fascination. They are, to put it bluntly, thrilled when exploring the unknown. And they want their research to be unique and insightful — which means taking on the biggest, most prominent challenges.In any event, the era of the “pause” — not just its temperatures but its media visibility — may now be ending. A new temperature record was set in 2014, and 2015 has started out even warmer — and many scientists suspect thatstrong El Nino conditions could drive it to a new record.But never fear: Another case of politicized scientific uncertainty is rapidly emerging in the climate debate.While it drew nothing like the attention that the “pause” story did, the National Snow and Ice Data Center recently reported that, yet again, the sea ice surrounding Antarctica set a record — its May 2015 extent was greater than any other May since 1979, when records began. We’re not in the season yet when this ice peaks, but we may see a new all-time high here as well when September rolls around (last September is the current record).This oddity in the climate system — expanding sea ice at the South Pole on a warming planet — is something scientists are still struggling to fully explain. And more and more in recent years, skeptics have been seizing on it, and often blowing it out of proportion.After all, growing Antarctic sea ice is no reason not to worry about polar regions. Arctic sea ice is plummeting. Greenland is losing enough ice annually to contribute a millimeter per year to global sea level. And Antarctica, according to a recent estimate, is contributing roughly another third of a millimeter per year through the loss of land-based ice. In sum, Antarctic sea ice is running in the opposite direction from three other major indicators.Furthermore, Antarctica is, well, complicated. Gigantic East Antarctica has seen no trend of rising temperatures, although West Antarctica and the Antarctic peninsula have. Meanwhile, warm water traveling from other parts of the world is lapping at the base of Antarctic ice sheets and melting them — throwing huge volumes of fresh water into the ocean. Finally, there are changes to atmospheric circulation patterns in the region that may be tied to global warming. In sum, it’s an intriguing scientific puzzle in a remote, dangerous, and frankly sublime place — precisely what attracts scientists to studying it.That’s why it’s so sad that we’re once again barreling into an area where there is considerable scientific uncertainty, and debating it in a political way.If this keeps happening, it’s because so many people still have their political identities implicated in the climate issue. They need to argue about it. So they seize on anything they can, even esoterica like Antarctic sea ice.Someday, to be sure, this pattern will cease — just as soon as the issue is resolved on a political level and there’s less motivation to argue over it. At that point, scientists will be able to pursue their curiosity with considerably fewer pitfalls. They’ll be able to go back to being just scientists again. (And I know some of them will relish it.)But in the meantime, we should all contemplate why we can’t just take a deep breath and let mysteries be mysteries — even as the people actually capable of sorting them out, the researchers, get to work.Also in Energy & Environment:Why green spaces are good for your kid’s brain;The world is off course to prevent 2 degrees C of warming, says energy agency;Want to fix the world? Start by making clean energy a default setting;For more, you can sign up for our weekly newsletter here, and follow us on Twitter here.Chris Mooney reports on science and the environment.This is the latest installment in a weekly column on energy and the environment — “Planetary.” This column will try to draw together major trends in this sphere and provide analysis and perspective that extend beyond our daily reporting. We welcome ideas from readers about major topics I should write about — click on my byline to email me, or tweet @
Security agency wars add to Ukraine’s spreading woes By Dmitry Zaks6 hours ago Kiev (AFP) – War-scarred Ukraine was engulfed Monday by a scandal involving the chiefs of its two main domestic security agencies amid claims of criminal dealings with top Russian tycoons.The standoff — sparked by who was to blame for a massive oil complex fire that is still raging — pits the head of Ukraine’s State Security Service (SBU) against a national prosecutor with the power to order the arrest of anyone except the most senior government figures.It has also drawn in President Petro Poroshenko and involves Russia’s largest petrochemical holding company — part-owned by a close associate of President Vladimir Putin who has been blacklisted by the United States.The bad blood brewing between Ukraine’s prosecutors and security agents boiled over when a chain of June 8 explosions at a petrol complex near Kiev caused flames to shoot up. The fire was still burning on Monday afternoon.Rainstorms forecast this week are expected to douse one of the region’s worst fires in decades.But the political ramifications of the disaster — in which five people died — are only now starting to emerge.SBU chief Valentyn Nalyvaychenko and some industry experts suspect that the complex — owned by a large Ukrainian petrol chain called BRSM-Nafta — is at the heart of an underground refining business that makes cheap but dangerous products on site.He claimed to have firm evidence of a former deputy general prosector illegally owning the Ukrainian company involved in the complex through offshore firms.Ukraine’s Security Service Chairman Valentyn Nalyvaychenko gives a press-conference in Kiev on J …Nalyvaychenko further accused the management of part of Russia’s energy giant Sibur of providing „criminal protection” for the entire operation and also profiting from the illegal deals.The charges prompted the general prosecutor’s office to denounce Nalyvaychenko’s comments as slander and order him to appear for questioning Monday — a decision backed by Poroshenko.The Ukrainian leader cancelled Nalyvaychenko’s June 16 visit to Washington and ordered his deputy to go in his place.- Mafia shakedown -The complicated and secretive schemes allegedly being used by BRSM-Nafta saw consumers end up with low-grade fuel products and the owners walk away with huge untaxed profits.Analysts suspect BRSM-Nafta of carrying out unsupervised oil refining operations that should only be performed at state regulated — and remote — petrochemical plants specifically built for the purpose.”It is no secret to anyone in the oil market that BRSM-Nafta facilities are a breeding ground for home-spun products,” said Sergiy Kuyun of the A95 energy consultancy.The fire at an oil-storage facility in the village of Kryachki, some 30 kms from Kiev on June 10, 20 …”These are not factories — these are just facilities used to mix various components, all of them fairly toxic. Their improper (handling) and at the wrong temperature… can cause an explosion and lead to the fire we saw,” he claimed.Such speculation has dominated Ukrainian television coverage of the fire and its still unexplained causes.But BRSM-Nafta blamed has firmly denied operating illegal refineries. Company spokesman Oleksandr Melnychuk told AFP that three explosive devices had been discovered near the company’s storage tankers since last August.He called it a part of a mafia-style shakedown „to take BRSM-Nafta away from us.”- Good for Ukraine -Ukraine’s last attempt to sweep out corruption and align the post-Soviet nation with Europe in the wake of the 2004 pro-democracy Orange Revolution quickly faded and saw a clique of new oligarchs emerge.Many blamed the problem on political turf battles that drained attention away from economic growth measures and saw the enthusiastic pro-Western public grow disenchanted.But some Kiev analysts called Nalyvaychenko’s charges — and the media’s extensive coverage of the entire case — actually good for Ukraine.”In my opinion, this conflict will only benefit us,” said political analyst Volodymyr Fesenko.”If they all end up jailing each other, there will be fewer corruption people in charge,” he said.Political studies professor Oleksiy Garan added that Ukraine’s powerful security agencies had successfully fought off all previous efforts to institute some form of state oversight and control.”They remain completely unreformed,” said Garan.”Now, we have reached the start of a long road (toward oversight), And most often, the biggest problems emerge at the start.”
Dozens of U.S. companies bet on nuclear power revolution: report By Timothy Gardner3 hours agoA woman and her dogs walk past the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station that sits on the shore of the …By Timothy Gardner WASHINGTON (Reuters) – The Pentagon’s top arms provider and firms partly funded by Silicon Valley billionaires Bill Gates and Paul Allen are among dozens of companies collectively betting more than $1.3 billion that a new wave of nuclear power can be a force to fight climate change.Advanced nuclear power plants, which will employ techniques such as using fuels other than uranium and coolants other than water, have attracted private investments from more than 40 companies from Florida to Washington state, the Third Way think tank says in the first report specifying the number of firms and total money invested in the technologies.The reactors, which could come into development in 10 to 15 years, can help curb U.S. carbon emissions and make investments in electricity generation less costly, researchers at Washington, D.C.-based Third Way said in a report seen by Reuters and to be released as soon as Monday.Companies expressing faith in advanced nuclear power range from Lockheed Martin, the Pentagon’s largest supplier, to Holtec International, which is building a $260 million technology campus in economically depressed Camden, New Jersey.Gates has partially funded TerraPower, a company that aims to build reactors cooled by liquid metal, and Allen has partially funded TriAlpha, a company that plans to make nuclear fusion plants.The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant is seen across the Susquehanna River in Middletown, Pennsy …Investors „realize cost competitiveness is the name of the game,” said Josh Freed, who directs the clean energy program at Third Way. The reactors are „designed to be scalable so that they can produce energy at a per megawatt hour cost that’s competitive not just with existing nuclear, but importantly with fossil fuels and renewable energy.”Advanced nuclear reactors should be smaller than today’s reactors, and construction should take one to five years, rather than five to six.Critics of advanced nuclear say companies have yet to make small reactors economically viable despite decades of development by energy companies and the U.S. military. Advanced reactors using new fuels, such as thorium, and new cooling systems, such as molten salt, are also difficult to make economically viable, they say.The nuclear industry has also been weakened by a political backlash following radioactive leaks at Japan’s Fukushima power plant in 2011. And the U.S. natural gas boom has slashed the cost of that fuel, making it harder for nuclear power to compete.The Third Way report was not funded by the nuclear industry. But the think tank has received financial support from The Nuclear Energy Institute, the industry’s lobby group, and Babcock & Wilcox, a company hoping to build small nuclear reactors.Late last year, Lockheed said it made a breakthrough in developing a power source based on nuclear fusion. The company said the first reactors for this new technology, small enough to fit on the back of a truck, could be ready in a decade.The companies say they are exploiting advances in material science and computer-assisted manufacturing that could help breakthroughs become realities before 2030.(Story corrects paragraph 6 to say TerraPower is working on reactors cooled by liquid metal, not fueled)(Reporting by Timothy Gardner; Editing by Bruce Wallace and David Gregorio)
Tbilisi flood searchers in nervous lookout for zoo animals By MISHA DZHINDZHIKHASHVILI50 minutes ago Associated Press Videos Raw: Deadly Flood Hits Georgia Zoo, Hippo FoundNews Raw: Deadly Flood Hits Georgia Zoo, Hippo Found TBILISI, Georgia (AP) — Workers and volunteers labored Monday in a flood-ravaged area of the Georgian capital to help victims while nervously watching for traces of dangerous animals that may have escaped the city zoo when it was inundated by the surging waters. Officials in the ex-Soviet republic said 14 people were confirmed dead.Related Stories
Ten people were thought to be missing after an intense downpour and high winds on Sunday turned a stream that runs through a section of Tbilisi into a sweeping torrent that destroyed houses, tore up roads and tossed vehicles into heaps of uprooted trees and rubbish.The devastated zoo was still trying to determine what had happened to four lions, three tigers and one jaguar whose enclosures were flooded, zoo spokeswoman Khatia Basilashvili said.She said a number of other wild cats — four lions, three tigers and two jaguars — were killed either in the flood or while on the loose, when some were shot by police.But it was unclear how many more animals would be found dead once the waters receded and the cleanup was completed at the zoo, or how many were still wandering the hills around Tbilisi.The flooding also killed scores of homeless dogs at a private shelter near the zoo, shelter staff said. Volunteers were working at the shelter on Monday to care for the remaining dogs and repair the kennels. They said about 150 of the approximately 500 dogs at the shelter had been saved.Cars are seen in the mud at a flooded zoo area in Tbilisi, Georgia, Monday, June 15, 2015. Rescue wo …”We dragged them out of their cages, but they tried to go back into the cages because those are their homes,” said Nati Mzhavia, one of those who came to the shelter to help the frightened dogs.The heavy rain that began shortly before midnight Saturday caused a landslide that blocked what is normally a pleasant stream in the hilly city, but as the floodwaters grew in strength, the fierce torrent broke through. The homes of about 40 families were destroyed.Up to 24 people were reported missing late Sunday. By Monday afternoon, all but 10 of them had been found, Georgian authorities said.The government declared Monday a day off from work and school while the search for the missing and the cleanup work went ahead in Tbilisi, a city of 1.1 million people. The government has urged residents to avoid going near the zoo.Prague Zoo, which suffered from the devastating flooding that hit the Czech capital in 2002 and again in 2013, was sending a team to Tbilisi on Monday.A destroyed flooded zoo area is seen in Tbilisi, Georgia, Monday, June 15, 2015. Rescue workers in t …”When we learned about the situation in Tbilisi Zoo, we started to work out how to help,” Prague Zoo director Miroslav Bobek said. „Based on our experience with the floods, we decided to create a team of curators to travel to Georgia’s zoo to help take care of the animals.”None of the people who died were killed by the zoo animals that got loose, Tbilisi Zoo Director Zurab Gurielidze said. Three zoo employees were among those who drowned.One of the potentially most dangerous animals to escape, a hippopotamus, was tranquilized and returned to the zoo on Sunday.A young white lion named Shumba, one of the zoo’s most beloved attractions, was found shot in the head on zoo territory on Sunday, the zoo director said.He demanded an investigation into the shootings of zoo animals.”If a predator attacked a person, then it’s understandable, but there are cases that need looking into,” Gurielidze said._Sophiko Megrelidze in Tbilisi and Karel Janicek in Prague, Czech Republic, contributed to this report.
British scientists hunt for Viking traces in Norman DNA 4 hours agoBritish researchers on Monday began collecting the DNA of residents from Normandy in northern France in search of Viking heritage (AFP Photo/Eric Feferberg) Valognes (France) (AFP) – British researchers on Monday began collecting the DNA of residents from Normandy in northern France in search of Viking heritage, but the project has raised concerns amongst some local anti-racism activists.Around a hundred volunteers from the Cotentin Peninsula area are giving DNA samples to academics at the University of Leicester, who are trying to find descendants of the Vikings who invaded what is now Normandy in the 9th century.The aim is to learn more about „the intensity of the Scandinavian colonisation” in the 9th and 10th centuries in the Cotentin Peninsula, said Richard Jones, a senior history lecturer at the University of Leicester.That includes trying to find out whether the colonisers kept to themselves or married amongst the locals, he added.The French volunteers have been chosen because they have surnames that are of Scandinavian origin or that have been present in France since at least the 11th century. They also qualify if all four of their grandparents lived within a 50-kilometre (30-mile) radius of their current home.French data protection authorities gave their green light to the study, which will be published in 2016, but the DNA testing has raised eyebrows in some quarters.”We’re worried this will build on the idea that there are real Normans and fake Normans,” said Jacques Declosmenil, head of the local wing of the Movement Against Racism (MRAP) group.”In the current context of xenophobia, it’s very dangerous. Racists could use this to say: ‘I’ve got proof that I haven’t got any Arab blood,’ for instance.”But Jones dismissed such concerns, saying the scientists were only studying two percent of a person’s DNA in order to potentially establish Scandinavian ancestry dating back more than 10 centuries. „Anything is possible” for the other 98 percent, he added.The team are searching for Viking roots amongst residents in three areas of Britain as well as in Normandy.But at the nearby Caen University, medieval history professor Pierre Bauduin said he had warned the Leicester academics that racial origins are „an extremely sensitive topic in France”.”It’s important that the results of this are not misrepresented by anyone,” he said.
Officials zeroing in on source of diesel spill into Vancouver’s False CreekBy Keven Drews, The Canadian Press | The Canadian Press – 3 hours agoThe Canadian Press – A cleanup crew member works aboard a boat on the scene of what is believed to be a diesel fuel spill in Vancouver’s False Creek, Monday June 15, 2015. Hundreds of metres of containment …more CANADA NEWS »
More Canada news »VANCOUVER – Hours after the stink of diesel permeated Vancouver’s False Creek Monday and closed sections of a seawall to pedestrians, emergency officials could confirm little more than that a spill had taken place.Its source and extent remained unknown by mid-afternoon, although officials estimated it may have come from one boat, been as little as 30 litres or as much as 5,000 litres, and the cleanup was largely over.Jeff Brady, a Canadian Coast Guard pollution response officer, said investigators focused on one vessel after an alarm on an inspector’s personal air monitor went off earlier in the day.He said firefighters trained in hazardous materials then tried to clean out the boat’s engine space for government inspectors.”Unfortunately, at this time, we can’t give any solid numbers on how much has spilled,” he said.„Once Transport Canada finishes its inspection and identifies the source, we might be able to quantify or calculate how much was in the tank prior to the last time it was used and how much is left in the tank now.”The coast guard alerted the city to the spill around 2:30 a.m. Monday. A containment boom was set up near Granville Island and officials began skimming the water and using absorbent pads to clean up the fuel.The city closed sections of the seawall walkway for hours and advised nearby residents to close their windows and turn off their air conditioning.Vancouver Coastal Health also asked boaters and swimmers to stay away from the area and paddlers and swimmers in other areas to watch for any oily sheen.Sadhu Johnston, the deputy city manager, said early in the day that between 30 and 1,000 litres of diesel had spilled into False Creek, apparently from a boat.Brady said later that based on his personal experience no more than 5,000 litres had spilled, although he couldn’t provide a solid figure. The fuel was likely diesel because of its smell and appearance, he noted.Investigators ruled out a land-based source of the spill in the morning, after firefighters examined storm drains, he said. Officials still had to rule out possible leaks from pipelines under the dock and in the area.Environment Canada was searching the area but had not reported any issues with wildlife.The coast guard believed it had boomed off the right area, the cleanup was largely over and was shifting towards inspection, he said, adding officials would remain in the area throughout the night to ensure there was not another release of diesel.”This is a very light product that’s going to be evaporating, especially with a nice wind and the hot weather that we have today,” he said.Johnston said communication between the city and the coast guard had improved since a spill earlier this year, when a container ship leaked more than 2,500 litres of oil into English Bay.”We’re still working on our notification protocol, but it’s gotten a lot better,” Johnston said. „Clearly, the coast guard has recognized the importance of collaborating and communicating with the municipality. So we really appreciate that. And now we want to refine that.
„Adevărata cauză a morţii lui Mihai Eminescu. Dezvăluirile specialiştilor, la 126 de ani de la moartea poetului 15 iunie 2015, 02:06 deCosmin ZamfiracheDevino fan Salvează în arhivă download pdf print article +1 (1 voturi) cuvinte cheie:botosani eminescu mihai eminescu poet moarte maiorescu inmormantere vuia cosereanu eminescolog nebun poenaru spital sindrom bipolar sifilis mercur 10 comentarii 517 share 1 inShare 131 Live Aboneaza-te la newsletter Abonare Ultima poză a lui Eminescu. Poetul avea 38 de ani. FOTO Adevărul S-au împlinit 126 de ani de la moartea poetului Mihai Eminescu. Cauza decesului şi afecţiunea de care suferea au rămas timp de mai bine de un secol un mister şi o sursă inepuizabilă de teorii şi polemici. În ultimii 20 de ani, specialiştii au ajuns la concluzia că Eminescu a fost victima unui caz grosolan de malpraxis. A fost doborât de un tratament administrat greşit. ŞTIRI PE ACEEAŞI TEMĂ Muzele care nu l-au iubit pe Eminescu. Mite l-a catalogat drept murdar… „Sâmbătă seara s-a înmormântat Eminescu” Pe data de 15 iunie 1889, în casa de sănătate, sau mai bine zis sanatoriul de boli mintale al doctorului Şuţu, situat pe Strada Plantelor din municipiul Bucureşti, la ora 4 dimineaţa, poetul nepreche Mihai Eminescu se stingea pe un pat metalic, la vârsta de 39 de ani . Ultima dorinţă a geniului care scrisese ”Luceafărul” sau ”Odă în metru antic” a fost un banal pahar cu lapte, pe care medicul de serviciu il strecurase prin vizeta metalică a ”celulei” în care şi-a petrecut ultimele ore din viaţă. I-ar fi şoptit celui care i-a făcut această favoare că ”sunt năruit”. A doua zi, pe 16 iunie, a fost constatat decesul, iar medicii Şuţu şi Petrescu fac formele legale şi pregătesc un raport oficial, destul de ambiguu din care nu reiese clar cauza morţii poetului. De altfel aceştia semnalează doar simptomele unei tulburări psihice, nu şi fizice. Mai mult decât atât, la autopsia efectuată de doctorul Tomescu şi mai apoi de Marinescu de la laboratorul Babeş creierul nu a putut fi studiat, fiind uitat de o asistentă cu neglijenţă pe o fereastră deschisă, unde s-a descompus rapid. ”Din nefericire, nu aş putea să vă dau multe informaţii în privinţa creierului marelui şi nefericitului poet Eminescu. Creierul mi s-a adus de la Institutul Şuţu într-o stare de descompunere care nu permitea un studiu fin al structurii circumvoluţiunilor”, îi scria medicul unui ziarist ieşean care–i ceruse date pentru scrierea unui articol. După două zile, Eminescu este şi înmormântat. Este depus în prealabil la biserica Sfântul ”Gheorghe cel Nou” din Bucureşti, pe un catafalc împodobit cu ramuri de tei. În jurul sicriului, coroane din partea Academiei Române şi a prietenilor şi mesaje. Mai departe, după ora 17.00 a urmat înmormântarea, descrisă de Titu Maiorescu, într-o scrisoare trimisă Emiliei Hempel, sora sa. ”Emilia dragă, în Biserica Sf. Gheorghe nou, cosciugul deschis al lui Mihai Eminescu era încins cu crengi de tei, în amintirea poesiilor lui parfumate cu flori de tei. Am rupt o frunză de la cosciug şi pentru tine şi ţi-o trimit aici. Sub bandă primeşti şi un număr din «Constituţionalul» cu descrierea îngropării. Articolul e de Caragiali. Când am însoţit pe jos, cu capetele goale, pe Eminescu, de la biserică pe bulevard, până la cimitirul Belu, Rosetti, Laurianu, Mihăileanu, eu, Anicuţa şi vreo 600 de şcolari şi studenţi, admirabilul cor vocal de la Mitropolie, era singura pompă. Era vremea acoperită, liniştită, nu vânt, nu zgomot, câteva picături de ploae, vreo 5 minute, apoi iar bine. Cortegiul a pornit din biserică pe la 6 ore, a sosit la cimitir pe la 7. S-a luat loc de la Primărie un mormânt de veci pentru el, e ceva mai în fund la dreapta de la tata. Din întâmplare, un mare copac de tei e în apropiere. Pentru grilaj şi o piatră de mormânt – eu cred o mare stâncă brută de marmoră cenuşie, cu o singură parte netezită, pe care să fie inscripţia Mihai Eminescu şi poate 4 versuri ale lui, şi un tei înlăuntrul grilajului se vor face subscripţii. Părerea mea e de 50 de bani, pentru ca toţi şcolarii, şi din Transilvania, să contribue. Sâmbătă seara s-a înmormântat Eminescu”, scria junimistul. Inmormântarea lui Mihai Eminescu FOTO eurotv.md Odată cu înmormântarea lui Eminescu în cimitirul Bellu, a fost îngropat şi misterul morţii sale. Pe parcursul a 126 de ani, specialiştii din diferite domenii, dar mai ales medical, au încercat să îi pună lui Eminescu un diagnostic clar şi să stabilească cu exactitate cauza morţii sale. ”Din păcate, nici acum nu se ştie cu certitudine totul despre moartea lui Eminescu”, spune specialistul Valentin Coşereanu, doctor în literatură şi eminescolog la Memorialul Ipoteşti din judeţul Botoşani. În privinţa cauzelor morţii lui Eminescu se numără trei teorii importante. 1. Ipoteza nebunului ucigaş Eminescologul Emil Coşereanu ne prezintă prima dintre aceste ipoteze apărute în presa vremii. Mai precis acesta susţine că a văzut la un dizident politic, păstrat în original, un articol din ziarul ”Universul”, mai precis numărul din 28 iunie 1926, în care se dădea de înţeles că Eminescu a murit din cauza unei lovituri aplicate de un alt pacient al Institutului ”Caritatea” al doctorului Şuţu. ”Era prezentată mărturia frizerului Dumitru Cosmănescu, căruia Eminescu îi spunea ”Dumitrache”. Acesta nu era un oarecare, a fost frizer al Regelui. Şi acesta povesteşte că l-a vizitat pe Eminescu la santoriu, acolo unde a avut loc o întâmplare neobişnuită. Eminescu se plimba prin curtea sanatoriului şi, când l-a văzut, l-a întrebat «Măi, Dumitrache, ştii tu să cânţi Deşteaptă-te Române? Frizerul i-ar fi răspuns «Nu». Eminescu l-a luat să-l înveţe şi a început să cânte cu vocea sa superbă de tenor, de plângeau ardelenii când îl auzeau. Atunci un nebun din curte a venit şi l-a lovit pe Eminescu cu o scândură în cap. Poetul a căzut la pământ şi i-ar fi spus frizerului: «Dumitrache, chemă medicul că mă prăpădesc». Au venit doi brancardieri şi l-au luat pe Eminescu. A venit după aceea doctorul Şuţu şi a spus că totul este bine şi că Eminescu este bine. Peste două zile a murit însă. Probabil de la aceea lovitură puternică să fi păţit ceva. Este o supoziţie, apărută documentar”, povesteşte pentru ”Adevărul”, Coşereanu. Locul unde se afla Sanatoriul ”Caritatea” al doctorului Şuţu, pe strada Plantelor FOTO Adevărul Totodată, eminescologul nu crede într-o conspiraţie politică sau de orice altă natură la adresa lui Eminescu. „Eu, personal, nu cred într-o astfel de conspiraţie. Avea duşmani, într-adevăr. Supăra pe mulţi cu articolele sale, cu mesajul său, dar nu cred că s-a ajuns până acolo. În orice caz, de ce l-ar fi ucis? Era deja internat, scos din viaţa publică”, spune Emil Coşereanu. Cel care l-a lovit pe Eminescu s-ar fi numit Petre Poenaru şi ar fi fost director de şcoală în Craiova. 2. Teoria erizipelului şi a endocarditei Un alt diagnostic vine din partea medicului Vineş, care l-a avut şi el în grijă pe Eminescu la ”Institutul Caritatea”. Acesta susţine că moartea poetului s-a tras de la o infecţie care a avut legătură tot cu lovitura dată de Petre Poenaru. Mai precis, acesta spune că rana de la cap s-a infectat, transformându-se într-un erizipel, care la rândul său a dus la alte complicaţii. ”Era o tăietură a pielii de 2 cm lungime. I s-au dat imediat îngrijirile medicale necesare, iar peste 3 zile buzele plăgii păreau reunite. Dar Eminescu care avea, după cum am spus, obiceiul de a strânge de pe jos tot felul de lucruri,din care unele erau murdare şi se freca cu ele pe corp şi pe cap desfăcându-şi pansamentul, a făcut un erizipel la nivelul plăgii, erizipel care s-a întins apoi la faţă, gât, membre superioare, torace, până la nivelul abdomenului.[…] Cum se vede din cele de mai sus, moartea lui Eminescu nu este datoratã traumatismului cranian petrecut cu 25 zile mai înainte şi care se vindecase complet, ci este consecinţa unei endocardite mai vechi (diagnosticată de regretatul profesor N.Tomescu, medic primar al serviciului de boli interne de la spitalul de copii, care era şi medic al institutului) de care era ameninţat în fiecare clipă şi care desigur s-a agravat după erizipel”, scria în raportul său medicul Vineş, raport citat de Nicolae Georgescu în lucrarea sa ”Eminescu târziu”. 3. Verdictul final: Eminescu victima unui caz de malpraxis Specialiştii contemporani, în primul rând medicii care s-au ocupat de cazul Eminescu, resping însă ambele ipoteze privind cauza morţii poetului. În urma ultimelor cercetări şi prin prisma ultimelor descoperiri din domeniul neurologiei şi psihiatriei, specialiştii au dat un verdicat final în cazul lui Mihai Eminescu: poetul a murit în urma unui stop cardio-respirator provocat de intoxicaţie cu mercur. Cu alte cuvinte, Eminescu a fost o victimă a sistemului medical românesc din secolul al XIX lea şi mai ales a unor medici care l-au diagnosticat şi tratat greşit. În primul rând Eminescu a fost diagnosticat încă din 1886 de doctorul Julian Bogdan de la Iaşi drept sifilitic, paralitic şi în pragul demenţei din cauza abuzului de alcool şi a gomelor sifilitice apărute pe creier. Acelaşi diagnostic îl dă poetului şi doctorul Panait Zosin, care l-a consultat pe Eminescu pe 6 noiembrie 1886 şi scria că pacientul Mihai Eminescu suferea de o ”alienţie mintală”, provocată de apariţia sifilisului şi agravată de alcoolismul de care ar fi suferit secundar poetul. Neuropatologul Ovidiu Vuia, care a studiat în amănunt fişele de observaţie, simptomele şi toate rapoartele medico-legale în cazul lui Eminescu precizează însă clar: Eminescu nu a avut sifilis. Chipul lui Mihai Eminescu, mort, imprimat în ghips FOTO bucurestiivechisinoi.ro „Concluziile mele ca medic neuropsihiatru, cercetător ştiinţific, autor a peste o sută de lucrări din domeniul patologiei creierului, sunt cât se poate de clare: Eminescu nu a suferit de lues (sifilis) şi nu a avut o demenţă paralitică”, preciza Ovidiu Vuia într-un articol de specialitate publicat în New York în 1987 şi reluat în lucrarea sa ”Despre boala şi moartea lui Mihai Eminescu”. A fost diagnosticat greşit, adaugă acelaşi neuropatolog în studiul său dedicat lui Eminescu. „Pentru prima oară, un oarecare dr. Julian Bogdan, în 1886, ascunzându-şi neştiinţa după o diplomă de Paris, pune diagnosticul la Eminescu de alienaţie mentală produsă probabil de gome sifilitice pe creier şi exacerbate de alcool. A fost pomenit şi un delirium tremens, şi el nefondat, fiindcă spargerea felinarelor pe stradă nu înseamnă că ai halucinaţii de animale mici, apărute mai ales la culcare, simptom tipic pentru un delirium tremens. Îmi pare rău că o scriu, dar doctorul de la Iaşi scotea diagnosticele (pur şi simplu din burtă), deci din auzite, şi nu din observaţia bolnavului”, preciza Vuia. Ucis de intoxicaţia cu mercur Din 1883, de la primele crize şi comportamente deviante ale lui Eminescu şi până în 1886, poetul a fost tratat în Austria şi Italia, de specialişti care au reuşit să-l pună pe picioare, după cum mărturisea prietenul bun al poetului, scriitorul Ioan Slavici. În 1886, suferă o cădere nervoasă şi ajunge pe mâna medicilor români. În special Julian Bogdan şi Panait Zosin. Imediat diagnosticat cu sifilis, după ce poetul trece prin calvarul de la mănăstirea Neamţului, unde era ospiciu de boli nervoase şi unde este bătut cu frânghia udă şi scufundat în butoaie, se trece la tratamentul cu mercur. Întâi frecţii la Botoşani, aplicate de medicul Itszak, şi mai apoi la Bucureşti la sanatoriul medicului Şuţu, unde este şi injectat cu mercur. Profesorul doctor Irinel Popescu, membru corespondent al Academiei Române şi preşedinte al Academiei de Ştiinţe Medicale din României, în cadrul unei sesiuni ştiinţifice ce a avut loc anul trecut şi întrunită tocmai pentru a discuta cazul Eminescu, spune cu certitudine că poetul a fost ucis din cauza intoxicării greşite cu mercur de către medicii din aceea perioadă. Intoxicaţia cu mercur i-a provocat stop-cardio-respirator care a fost şi cauza morţii poetului. ”Între lunile februarie – iunie 1889, lui Mihai Eminescu i s-a administrat intravenos clorură de mercur la Institutul Şuţu şi, probabil, că aceasta a fost cauza stopului cardiac, care i-a provocat moartea”, preciza acesta. Părerea profesorului doctor Irinel Popescu este împărtăşită şi de un alt specialist, medicul Raul Neghina de la departamentul de parazitologie a Universităţii de Medicină şi Farmacie ”Victor Babeş” din Timişoara. Acesta precizează că poetul a fost ”tratat” de incompetenţi şi ţinut în mizerie, ceea ce i-a scurtat deasemenea viaţa. ”După ce am revăzut toate ipotezele medicale şi simptomatologia, concluzionăm că a suferit de tulburare bipolară şi a murit din cauza otrăvirii cu mercur, un tratament neadecvat administrat ca urmare a diagnosticării greşite cu sifilis. Spitalizat in locuri nepotrivite şi tratat de medici incompetenţi, a sufeit nu doar fizic, dar şi moral, murind prematur. În urma unei scrisori adresate prietenilor, el pe bună dreptate s-a considerat un om sacrificat”, preciza medicul Raul Neghina, în studiul „Controverse medicale şi dileme privind boala şi moartea lui Mihai Eminescu”. Cu alte cuvinte, Mihai Eminescu a fost victima unui caz de malpraxis, fiind diagnosticat greşit, fiindu-i administrat un tratament neadecvat, care i-a provocat un stop cardio-respirator şi în cele din urmă decesul. Pe scurt Eminescu a fost omorât prin intoxicare cu mercur de un grup de medici incompetenţi. Profesorul doctor Irinel Popescu sublinia de altfel că mercurul era deja interzis ca şi tratament al sifilisului în Europa de Vest în secolul al XIX lea, tocmai din cauza efectelor sale adverse. Eminescu suferea de tulburare bipolară Cauza morţii poetului Mihai Eminescu este clară pentru medicii de astăzi. Ei arată şi că poetul a ajuns în sanatoriile unde a şi fost diagnosticat greşit din cauza unor tulburări psihice. Este vorba de tulburarea bipolară sau stări alternante de manie şi depresie, apărute pentru prima dată în 1883. ”Pentru sindromul bipolar al lui Eminescu există probe directe (relatările lui Şuţu despre tulburările de comportament, opinia renumitului psihiatru Eliot Slater – autorul celebrului tratat Clinical Psychiatry, care a primit de la Dr. Nica dosarul cu boala lui Eminescu şi a concluzionat, fără nicio rezervă, că este vorba despre o psihoză maniaco-depresivă) şi probe indirecte, printre care opinia unor psihiatri de renume că patologia afectivă domină la scriitorii cu probleme psihice, iar creativitatea artistică poate fi asociată cu bipolaritatea”, precizează specialistul în psihiatrie, profesorul doctor Dan Prelipceanu, prezent la aceeaşi sesiune ştiinţifică întrunită anul trecut pentru elucidarea bolii şi morţii lui Eminescu. Opinia sa a fost trecută în lucrarea ”Bolile lui Eminescu-adevăr şi mistificare”, a lui Nicolae Constantinescu, în Revista de Politica Ştiinţei şi Scientometrie. Specialistul Emil Coşereanu susţine acestă părere şi spune că Eminescu s-a îmbolnăvit şi ca urmare a zbuciumului său interior, a dezamăgirilor provocate de societate şi mai ales a muncii istovitoare de la ziar. Valentin Coşereanu FOTO Cosmin Zamfirache ”Eminescu a trăit la o intensitate peste conştiinţa înţelegerii noastre de astăzi şi de atunci încât un moment dat revolta faţă de ceea ce se întâmpla în jurul lui, în societate, şi-a spus cuvântul în mintea şi în sufletul lui. El a luptat cu morile de vânt şi cu troglodiţii. Şi pe deasupra erau şi dezamăgirile, era şi munca cumplită de la ziarul ”Timpul”. Păi ţinea aproape de unul singur un ziar în spate”, a precizat Coşereanu. Neuropatologul Ovidiu Vuia spune că şi din punct de vedere medical munca susţinută, dar şi dezamăgirile din viaţa de zi cu zi, ca şi greutăţile materiale l-au îmbolnăvit. ”Înainte de a face criza, obosit şi depresiv, are fenomene provocate de munca susţinută şi grea de ziarist la ”Timpul”, deci nu pot fi calificate drept patologice. Aproape de scadenţa psihozei a prezentat simptome grave, toate însă de natură afectivă şi fără stigmate paralitice”, mai preciza Vuia. Vă recomandăm să citiţi şi următoarele ştiri: Mihai Eminescu, analiza unui psihanalist interbelic – legătura bolnavă cu personajele sale: era sadic, alienat de mic, schizofrenic şi masochist Teoria asasinării lui Eminescu. Planul diabolic prin care poetului i s-a înscenat nebunia pentru a fi îndepărtat de la ziar şi a fost otrăvit cu mercur
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