3.5-magnitude earthquake rattles Yucaipa KABC – Los Angeles3.5-magnitude earthquake rattles Yucaipa A 3.5-magnitude earthquake struck about 6 miles north of Yucaipa early Friday morning, shaking many residents in surrounding areas awake.
Two massive magma plumes fuelled Deccan Traps eruption 65 million years ago
Hannah Osborne,International Business Times Thu, Feb 9 9:34 AM PST Not one but two magma plumes fuelled the Deccan Traps mass eruption around 65 million years ago, scientists have discovered.The eruptions, which lasted tens of thousands of years, are believed to have helped push the dinosaurs to extinction, yet our understanding of them remains limited. To get a better insight, Petar Glišović and Alessandro M. Forte created a model to trace back the structure of the mantle to look at changes over time. And their findings showed there were two main hotspots feeding the eruptions – not one as previously thought.What are the Deccan Traps?Why advertise with usThe Deccan Traps are one of the biggest volcanic features on Earth. Located in west-central India, they began forming just over 66 million years ago through massive volcanic eruptions. As the flood basalt solidified, it formed multiple layers – producing what we see today. In total, the geological feature is over 2km thick and covers an area of 500,000km2.More from IBTimes UK Giant fossil found in Transylvania was a ferocious flying predator that could devour horse-sized dinosaurs;It became cold. I mean, really cold: Global temperatures in the aftermath of the dinosaur-killing asteroid;Why did dinosaurs go extinct but birds survived? Answer revealed – in eggs Previous research has shown the volcanic eruptions began about 250,000 years before the Chicxulub asteroid struck, 66 million years ago, and continued for 500,000 years after. This has led some scientists to suggest theasteroid impact triggered the eruptions on the other side of the planet. Other theories suggest the two events coincided by chance, creating a „one-two punch” that wiped out the dinosaurs.At present, it is thought the Reunion hotspot caused the Deccan Traps eruption, with a deep mantle plume feeding the eruptions.Understanding its eruptive historyThe lava flows at Deccan Traps covered half of India.Baajhan/Flickr Because we do not know what the mantle structure was like in the Deccan Traps region 65 million years ago, reconstructing how it changed has been challenging. Published in the journal Science, Glišović and Forte said previous interpretations of mantle changes that led to the eruptions has been based on analysis of the surface geological record.”Correlations between rapid changes in Indian plate velocity and time of the Deccan eruptions along with theoretical modelling of plume-related plate-driving forces support the longstanding hypothesis of a mantle plume origin for the Deccan eruptions,” they wrote. But this alone does not show the origin of the magma.To get a better insight, the researchers used „time-reversed convection modelling” that included a tomography-based view of the present-day mantle. Their 3D view of the mantle allowed them to work backwards to look at changes over time.Two plumes19 January 2017: Lightning bolts flash as the Colima Volcano, also known as the Volcano of Fire, erupts. (representational image)Sergio Velasco Garcia/AFPTheir findings showed there was an upwelling coming from under the Reunion hotspot at the time of the eruptions. However, they also showed there was a second active upwelling under the Comores hot spot that would probably have helped feed the huge eruption.While the Comores hotspot contributed slightly less than the Reunion hotspot, it could have provided around 35 million cubic kilometres of melted mantle. The upwelling – totalling 75 million cubic kilometres – began around 68 million years ago. „Such ample amounts of mantle melting would have been sufficient to supply the Deccan lava flows,” they wrote. Between 20 and 40 million years later, the volume of available magma would have decreased to zero.”Although our model cannot exactly predict the peak eruption of the Deccan lava flows at 66 million years ago, it does accurately predict a 10 million year time window that strongly peaked near 68 million years ago, in which mantle melt was accessible to lava flows that preceded, coincided, and then followed the main Deccan event.”
Nick Perry, Associated Press,Associated Press 6 hours ago WELLINGTON, New Zealand (AP) — A new pod of 240 whales swam aground at a remote New Zealand beach on Saturday just hours after weary volunteers managed to refloat a different group of whales following an earlier mass stranding.In total, more than 650 pilot whales have beached themselves along a 5 kilometer (3 mile) stretch of coastline over two days on Farewell Spit at the tip of the South Island. About 335 of the whales are dead, 220 remain stranded, and 100 are back at sea.Department of Conservation Golden Bay Operations Manager Andrew Lamason said they are sure they’re dealing with a new pod because they had tagged all the refloated whales from the first group and none of the new group had tags.The news was devastating for hundreds of volunteers who had come from around the country to help with the initial group of 416 stranded whales that was found early Friday, many of them already dead.Volunteers are planning to return Sunday to help refloat as many healthy whales as they can.Lamason said about 20 of the new group were euthanized by conservation workers because they were in poor condition and more would likely need to be killed Sunday.Rescuers had been hopeful earlier Saturday after efforts to refloat the initial group of whales had gone well, following a frustrating day on Friday.Lamason said improved weather and crystal clear water had helped with the rescue attempt. He said about 100 surviving whales from the initial group were refloated, and dozens of volunteers had formed a human chain in the water to prevent them from beaching again.He said volunteers were warned about the possibility of stingrays and sharks, after one of the dead whales appeared to have bite marks consistent with a shark. He said there had been no shark sightings.Officials will soon need to turn to the grim task of disposing of hundreds of carcasses.Lamason said one option was to tether the carcasses to stakes or a boat in the shallow tidal waters and let them decompose. The problem with towing them out to sea or leaving them was that they could become gaseous and buoyant, and end up causing problems by floating into populated bays.Farewell Spit, a sliver of sand that arches like a hook into the Tasman Sea, has been the site of previous mass strandings. Sometimes described as a whale trap, the spit’s long coastline and gently sloping beaches seem to make it difficult for whales to navigate away from once they get close.There are different theories as to why whales strand themselves, from chasing prey too far inshore to trying to protect a sick member of the group or escaping a predator.New Zealand has one of the highest rates of whale strandings in the world, and Friday’s event was the nation’s third-biggest in recorded history. The largest was in 1918, when about 1,000 pilot whales came ashore on the Chatham Islands. In 1985, about 450 whales stranded in Auckland.Pilot whales grow to about 7.5 meters (25 feet) and are common around New Zealand’s waters.
CNN 3 hours ago „We need to be clear that in catastrophic conditions, it is the most dangerous of conditions. Fires will start early, and they will spread very quickly,” Fitzsimmons said. He warned that the fire service does not have the resources to knock on every door to warn residents if fires spread quickly, but he said officials would do their best to save lives and homes. The „catastrophic” fire danger conditions are forecast for the Greater Hunter, Central Ranges and North Western areas, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology said. Half a dozen other areas face „extreme” and „severe” fire danger warnings for Sunday. A „catastrophic” warning carries the risk of significant loss of life and the destruction …Residents are urged to avoid or leave bushfire-prone areas.”It’s not another summer’s day. It’s not another bad fire weather day. This is as bad as it gets,” Rural Fire Services Commissioner Shane Fitzsimmons said Saturday during a news conference.”It is simply not a safe environment, which is why we’re making it very clear to people that the only safe place to be is not in at-risk areas,” he said.Widespread worsening fire danger Sunday, including areas of Severe, Extreme & Catastrophic. Check your area https://t.co/3oLxWuQRxz #NSWRFS
U.S.Alligator drags golfer into pond, gets foiled by putter; video GrindTV.com 16 hours ago As Tony Aarts walked toward the green on the fourth hole at Magnolia Landing Golf & Country Club—with putter in hand—all he could think about was making a 10-foot birdie putt.But those thoughts on the North Fort Myers, Florida, golf course Wednesday were abruptly interrupted by an attacking alligator.“As I was walking about 5- to 6-feet away from the water I heard a splash, and as soon as I seen that splash I knew it was an alligator,” Aarts told WINK News. “I jumped, but he had me.”The alligator grabbed his right ankle and started dragging him toward the water. Aarts fell on his back and rolled into the water hazard as he struggled to escape.“I remember having a club in my hand, and as soon as he had me in the water up to my waist, I started hitting him over the head,” Aarts said.RELATED: Giant alligator ‘out of Jurassic Park’ shocks golfers; video“He was looking at me with his big eyes, and I kept hitting him. And I’m thinking I’m getting deeper and deeper, and I thought, ‘You’re not gonna get me.’”So Aarts changed his technique and began poking him in the eye socket over and over.“I hit him three times and he let go of my foot,” Aarts said. “So I crawled back out and by that time the guys were there.”An ambulance took Aarts to the hospital for treatment while the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission took care of the alligator. Wildlife officials caught the offending gator and put it down.“It’s a good thing I had that putter,” Aarts told WINK News. “I guess a golfer should always keep a club in his hand.”Especially when there are alligators present.
Nevada county declares emergency after earthen dam fails Associated Press Thu, Feb 9 3:49 PM PST ELKO, Nev. (AP) — A rural northeast Nevada county declared a state of emergency Thursday after an earthen dam failed, releasing fast-moving water that forced trains to reroute and closed part of a washed out state highway near the Utah line.A 65-mile stretch of U.S. Highway 93 from Wells north to the Idaho line also was closed due to flooding a day after the dam broke near Montello, state transportation officials said.Elko County Sheriff Jim Pitts said county commissioners approved the state of emergency as his deputies searched for anyone who might be stranded by floodwaters.No injuries have been reported, but authorities said there appeared to be extensive damage to several ranches and farms.About 30 residences have been impacted by the floodwaters in Montello since the Twentyone Mile Dam broke Wednesday afternoon, Pitts said. A 10-mile stretch of State Route 233 remained closed.”The weather by Montello has calmed down, but we did lose a road with the reservoir failure,” Pitts told reporters in Elko on Thursday.”I have the undersheriff right now flying up to take a look at the rest of the reservoirs and other damage in that area,” he said. He said the emergency declaration will make the county eligible for state assistanceNevada Department of Transportation spokeswoman Meg Ragonese said Thursday afternoon there was no way of knowing how long State Route 233 would remain closed.”An entire section of the road washed out,” she told The Associated Press.Most of northeast Nevada remained under a flood warning into Friday as a wet winter storm battered much of the northern half of the state from California to Utah. In western Nevada, winds gusting in excess of 90 mph toppled multiple semi-trailers north of Reno and south of Carson City, and downed power lines, leaving more than 10,000 homes without power Thursday afternoon.The flooding in Elko County forced delays or rerouting for more than a dozen freight and passenger trains on a main rail line that runs through the area, said Union Pacific spokesman Justin E. Jacobs. Crews have begun assessing washed out and damaged areas. It’s unknown when service will be restored.The rural area affected is situated is near the Utah border and about 30 miles northeast of Wells, a key Nevada city along Interstate 80.The weather service said that a full breach and failure of the 21 Mile Dam sent water spilling out in a „dangerous and life-threatening situation.”Kevin Hall, a captain with the East Elko Fire Protection District, said the flooding and the breach were due to heavy runoff and snowmelt.A postal spokesman for Nevada said the Elko Daily Free Press that the Montello Post Office was „swamped,” but workers were able to retrieve all the mail.”We’re still assessing how we’re going to deliver it,” David Rupert told the newspaper.
KGO – San Francisco 8 hours agoNow Playing1:360:06 Southbound Highway 17 reopens, slide fears continue The Southbound lanes of Highway 17 opened up Friday in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The risk of dangerous, falling debris has caused problems there for weeks.
The Huffington Post 13 hours agoCalifornia Gov. Jerry Brown has sent a letter to Donald Trump, asking the president to issue a disaster declaration for the storm-beleaguered state.The letter, issued Friday, cites a series of “powerful winter storms” beginning Jan. 3 and lasting nine days that brought “relentless heavy precipitation and high winds that caused flash flooding, debris and mud flows, erosion, power outages, and damage to critical infrastructure.” The storms resulted in eight deaths in seven counties. “The impacts associated with this series of storms were substantial and widespread, devastating much of California,” the letter adds.A disaster declaration frees up federal funds to help pay for damage. Presidents usually respond positively to such requests, but Trump is an unconventional commander-in-chief. Last week, he called California “out of control” ― though he didn’t explained exactly what he meant. Trump also threatened to block federal funds if California goes ahead with plans to become a sanctuary state for immigrants.Brown has already declared a state emergency in 49 counties.Most of the damage has occurred to roads, bridges, dams and water control and filtration systems, according to Brown’s letter, which estimates damages of $162 million for the January storms. Bad weather is continuing to wallop California this month.On Friday, the state’s second-largest reservoir was at 99 percent capacity and threatening to burst its banks after officials cut down use of the Oroville Dam’s seriously damaged concrete spillway, which is supposed to divert excess water. The eroded spillway continued to deteriorate under a chaotic rush of water that was washing away ground dangerously close to power lines and threatening to flood communities downstream, the Sacramento Bee reported.The region, located about 70 miles north of Sacramento in the foothills of the Sierra Nevadas, has been pelted with up to 20 inches of rain in the past three days. Officials were hoping that an emergency spillway could fill in for the crippled spillway if it comes to that. The spillway hasn’t been used once since the earthen dam was built 48 years ago.This could be Northern California’s wettest season ever, according to the California Department of Water Resources. The average annual rainfall in the region is 50 inches. On Friday it hit 67.4 inches of precipitation and was still trending up. The 1982-83 wet season produced 88.5 inches, but this year could still surpass that record.
New York Post 18 hours ago Thousands of rounds of ammunition were stolen at Oregon’s Crater Lake National Park — and the feds are asking for the public to help them find the culprits.The rifle and pistol ammo was pilfered from a locked building in the park’s headquarters area, the Register-Guard of Eugene, Ore., reported.The ammo was used as part of the park’s law enforcement program, according to the National Park Service. Its theft is a felony.Authorities are offering up to $1,000 for information leading to the identification, arrest and conviction of those responsible for the theft.Crater Lake National Park is located in the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon. It’s known for its namesake Crater Lake, formed by the now-collapsed volcano Mount Mazama.