Nothing worked. Not pulling back on the yoke to try to get the nose up. Not attempting to adjust the trim, the preliminary report on the crash would show. Making matters worse, multiple alarms, clackers and other audible warnings distracted the pair. The jet crashed in March outside Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, killing 157.The crash laid bare Boeing’s shortcomings in having designed an automated flight system that overrode the actions of the flight crew. But it also raised questions about pilot experience — whether mistakes were made in the cockpit and whether foreign airlines require pilots to have enough training. Those questions will be at the fore Monday, when a committee of the United Nations-backed body that sets international standards for air travel is scheduled to take a fresh look at pilot requirements.Booking fall travel or holiday flights? How to find out if it’s on a Boeing 737 MaxRescuers work at the scene of an Ethiopian Airlines flight crash near Bishoftu, south of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, March 11, 2019. A spokesman says Ethiopian Airlines has grounded all its Boeing 737 Max 8 aircraft as a safety precaution, following the crash of one of its planes on March 10 in which 157 people were killed In the U.S., 1,500 hours. Overseas, 240 hoursIn the U.S., copilots must have a minimum of 1,500 flight hours, the same as pilots, before they can take the right seat in a commercial airliner. Internationally, it’s only 240 hours and can include a mix of time in simulators.While the preliminary accident report in the Ethiopian crash showed the 29-year-old pilot had 8,122 hours of flight time, the 25-year-old first officer had only 361 total hours, having received his commercial airline license three months earlier.The crash followed another about five months earlier involving another 737 Maxflown by Lion Air. That plane plummeted into the Java Sea, killing 189. In both crashes, probes revealed an automated system repeatedly pointed the planes’ noses down as pilots tried to pull up. Boeing had installed the system to compensate for larger engines positioned farther forward on the wing.‘It will be a crash for sure’: Ethiopian pilot pleaded for training after Lion Air Boeing 737 Max crash After the Lion Air crash, Boeing had insisted the 737 Max is safe because pilots can follow a procedure to switch off the system, called the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System, or MCAS. Boeing CEO Dennis Muilenburg hinted about six weeks after the Ethiopian crash that pilots did not „completely” follow procedures.The crash report illuminates what he may have meant. In particular, the report shows pilots never cut back the plane’s power after takeoff, which would have made it harder to manually control the horizontal stabilizer.Would a more experienced or better-trained crew have made a difference?Lately, talk of blaming the pilots has largely died down. Chesley „Sully” Sullenberger, the retired US Airways pilot who became a national hero in 2009 after saving all his passengers by ditching his disabled jetliner in the Hudson River, testified to a House panel last month that he doubts he could have saved the Ethiopian jet given MCAS and all the distractions in the cockpit during the emergency.Still, leaders of the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and its Aviation Subcommittee, two Republicans and two Democrats, have requested the Transportation Department’s inspector general look into pilot training standards for commercial pilots operating outside the U.S., including for those who fly the Boeing 737 Max.”If these pilots, hard as they tried to save their passengers, did not receive adequate training in the first place, then that is another factor that demands action. That is true no matter where they are flying or where they were trained,” wrote one of them, Rep. Sam Graves, R-Mo., in a commentary for Fox Businesslast month.On Monday, a committee of the International Civil Aviation Organization, a unit of the United Nations known commonly as ICAO, is scheduled to review flight-hour requirements for pilots. The meeting was scheduled before the 737 Max crashes and won’t be limited to requirements for commercial pilots, said Miguel Marin, chief of the operational safety section of ICAO’s Air Navigation Bureau.But rather than moving closer to the U.S. standard, ICAO appears to be headed toward another approach. It is more concerned with pilots’ skills and demonstrated competency rather than just flight hours, perhaps ready to question whether a minimum-hour requirement is still needed. A recommendation to reduce flight hours, if one comes, would reflect a long-standing difference of philosophy.”The U.S. went one way. The rest of the world went the other way,” said Michael Wiggins, a professor at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.In the U.S., there’s little appetite to banish the 1,500-hour rule for copilots. „Industry pundits argue over the effectiveness of the 1,500-hour rule, but it certainly reduced the number of regional airline captains flying their entire month with 250-hour interns,” said Louis Smith, president of FAPA.aero, a pilot job advisory service.On autopilot: ‘Pilots are losing their basic flying skills,’ some fear after Boeing 737 Max crashes ‘Experience equals safety’ Larry Rooney, president of the Coalition of Airline Pilots Associations, said „experience equals safety” and deadpans: „If you’re going to fly in winter weather, you need to see it a couple of times.”The flight-hours has become a major issue for commuter airlines in the U.S. They have seen a worsening pilot shortage since the minimum flight-hour requirement for copilots was raised in 2013 from 250 hours. The change resulted from an investigation into the 2009 crash of a Colgan Air commuter plane outside Buffalo, New York.The Regional Airline Association, representing commuter carriers, asserts higher flight-hour standards have raised the typical costs of becoming a copilot to $200,000. That makes it hard to afford the career with starting salaries for copilots averaging $61,602.Some pilots say there’s a lot more to flight safety than a sheer number of flight hours.Former airline pilot and aviation expert John Cox said he supports the 1,500-hour rule but believes there should be offsets that reflect higher levels of training.The U.S. Air Force, he said, prepares young officers to fly fighters in combat with as little as 300 hours of flight time. By contrast, private pilots concerned wholly about trying to meet the 1,500-hour requirement can rack up hours by flying banner-towing planes in good weather — hardly the same level of stress and high-caliber experience as in the military.”What matters is not the quantity of hours but the quality of training,” said Cox.This article originally appeared on USA TODAY: Boeing 737 Max crash: Did foreign pilots have enough training to fly commercial jets?
In fact, many seniors are surprised to learn that even their Social Security benefits are taxed at the federal level. The only exception is for those with minimal retirement income — namely, seniors who live on Social Security alone. There are also some states that impose a tax on Social Security — 13 to be exact. The good news? There are 37 states that don’t require seniors to pay taxes on Social Security at the state level, so if you live in one of these, you can retain a bit more of your money.
IMAGE SOURCE: GETTY IMAGES.
States that don’t tax Social Security
If you live in one of the following states during retirement, you can rest easy knowing that your Social Security benefits won’t be taxed at the state level:
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey
- New York
- North Carolina
- South Carolina
- South Dakota
Keep in mind that some of the states on this list don’t have a state income tax at all. For example, Alaska, Florida, Nevada, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming don’t impose state income taxes, and Social Security income falls under that umbrella. Furthermore, while New Hampshire and Tennessee do have a state income tax, it’s only on dividends and investment income, so Social Security doesn’t fall into that category.
Remember, though, that just because you live in one of the above states doesn’t mean that your benefits won’t be taxed at the federal level. To see if you’ll pay federal taxes on Social Security, you’ll need to calculate your provisional income, which is essentially your non-Social Security income plus 50% of the amount you collect in annual benefits. If your total falls between $25,000 and $34,000 and you’re a single tax filer, or between $32,000 and $44,000 as a joint filer, then you could pay federal taxes on up to 50% of your Social Security income. And if your provisional income exceeds $34,000 as a single tax filer or $44,000 as a couple filing jointly, then you could pay federal taxes on up to 85% of your benefits.
Furthermore, there’s talk of Illinois changing its tune on Social Security and imposing a state tax on benefits to help address its brewing financial crisis. Illinois residents should therefore consider themselves warned that they could see their tax burden go up.
Of course, the decision of where to retire shouldn’t just boil down to whether your state taxes Social Security. There are other factors, like housing prices and the general cost of living, that you’ll need to take into account as well. Furthermore, just because your state doesn’t tax Social Security income at present doesn’t mean it won’t happen in the future. But for now, you can use the information above for retirement-planning purposes and hope that things stay the same by the time your golden years actually kick off.
Politics Gut Check: A Good Guide to the Use of Military Force? Paul Slovic, Amichai CohenThe National Interest•July 6, 2019 Reuters More Paul Slovic, Amichai Cohen Security, Middle East Here’s what American voters think.Gut Check: A Good Guide to the Use of Military Force?As expected, the decision to support the strike felt much more difficult when one or more Americans had died.Why did U.S. President Donald Trump recently call off a retaliatory strike against Iran?The answer was proportionality: Trump said the American response to Iran’s downing of an American drone should be on a similar scale.That decision, Trump said, came from his “gut.”Because the drone was unmanned, Trump said it would be disproportionate for a U.S. strike to result in approximately 150 Iranian deaths, the estimated number of likely casualties.The decision to call off the strike at the last minute may have been the right one. But years of research on valuing human lives, conducted by us and many others, make a compelling case that deciding what is proportional based on gut feelings is a profound mistake.A decision-making process that relies on intuitive feelings, rather than careful deliberation, invites a host of biases that make bad decisions, and disproportional consequences, far more likely.
Ultimate Weapon? Sanctions on Iran’s Supreme Leader Really a Game Changer?
The National Interest•July 6, 2019
Economics, Middle East
We find out.
Ultimate Weapon? Sanctions on Iran’s Supreme Leader Really a Game Changer?
Despite the limited reach of the United States to directly affect some areas of the Iranian economy with sanctions, it does have room to add effective secondary sanctions.
The United States, reacting to the shooting down of a U.S. unmanned aerial vehicle last week, launched two sanctions-related salvos against Iran on June 24. It layered sanctions on top of those already targeting commanders in Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), which are unlikely to have more than a limited effect on the Iranian economy. The second set of sanctions, targeting Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and his appointees, could bite much deeper than typical sanctions issued by the United States by hampering Iran’s engagement with the world and damaging its economy.
An Executive Order Lays the Groundwork
An executive order signed by U.S. President Donald Trump freezes all property subject to U.S. jurisdiction that is held by Iran’s supreme leader or the supreme leader’s office. In addition, the order allows the U.S. Treasury Department to similarly sanction any person or entity the supreme leader, or his office, appoints, such as a state official or the head of an entity such as a company leader. The order also extends that connection a step further, allowing sanctions to be placed on any appointment made by an appointee of the supreme leader, as well. It also threatens sanctions against anyone who provides support for people or entities sanctioned under those designations.
Here’s the biggest news you missed this weekend
Here’s the biggest news you missed this weekend
The best ever? US women win World Cup
The U.S. women won their fourth World Cup title Sunday in a 2-0 victory over the Netherlands, staking their claim as the best team in the program’s history. It marked their second consecutive title, a first for the U.S. women. On Sunday, after Megan Rapinoe scored on a penalty kick to break a tense, scoreless tie, the entire team rushed to surround her, turning the corner off the field into a pop-up mosh pit. Rapinoe seemed to grow in stature after she was the center of a firestorm when President Donald Trump took issue with past comments of hers about the national anthem and not visiting the White House. As the final seconds ticked down on Sunday, the remaining 12 players and coaches stood at the sideline, arms around each other. This was a title for the ages, and a team for it, as well.
Tehran (AFP) – Iran denied Sunday that an oil tanker detained by Britain in Gibraltar was carrying crude to Syria, which would put it in violation of EU sanctions.
„The tanker was carrying Iran’s oil… Contrary to what the British government claims, its destination was not Syria,” said Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Araghchi at a press conference in Tehran.
„The port named in Syria does not even have the capacity for such a supertanker to dock. Its destination was somewhere else,” he added.
The 330-metre (1,000-feet) Grace 1, capable of carrying 2 million oil barrels, was halted in the early hours of Thursday by police and customs agencies in Gibraltar, a British overseas territory on Spain’s southern tip at the western entrance to the Mediterranean.
The ship was detained 2.5 miles (four kilometres) south of Gibraltar in what it considers British waters, although Spain, which lays claim to the territory, says they are Spanish.
Araghchi said the tanker was crossing the Strait of Gibraltar because its „high capacity” meant „it was not possible for it to pass through the Suez Canal”.
He insisted the tanker was intercepted in international waters and accused Britain’s Royal Navy of committing „maritime piracy”.
The tanker’s detention came at a sensitive time in Iran-EU ties as the bloc mulls how to respond to Tehran breaching the uranium enrichment limit it agreed to in the troubled 2015 nuclear deal.
Iran is currently following „the legal path through court” but hopes the issue can be resolved by „ongoing diplomatic consultations”, Araghchi added.
Iran Friday demanded that Britain immediately release the tanker, but Gibraltar’s Supreme Court ruled that the vessel can be held for 14 more days.
Sweden beats England 2-1 to take third at Women’s World Cup
NICE, France (AP) — Kosovare Asllani set Sweden on its way to a 2-1 victory over England for third place in the Women’s World Cup on Saturday night but the midfielder almost didn’t play in the bronze medal match.
Asllani was taken off the field on a stretcher during Wednesday’s semifinal loss to the Netherlands following a head injury and was taken to hospital. And the 29-year-old revealed that as late as Friday she was told that she wouldn’t be able to play in the match in Nice.
”Yesterday, I got a ‘no’ about playing from our medical staff. But we did the test again today and it was positive,” an emotional Asllani said. ”I felt it was going to take a lot for me to miss this game but I really gave it my all and I feel in every percent of my body that I’ve given it all.”
It was a third bronze medal for Sweden, which also finished as the runner-up in 2003.
Asllani gave the Swedes the lead in the 11th minute as they took advantage of early struggles by England.
Alex Greenwood had plenty of time to clear Fridolina Rolfo’s cross but sent it straight into the path of Asllani, who drilled it into the bottom right corner. England goalkeeper Carly Telford got a hand on it but couldn’t keep it out of the net.
Sweden was up 2-1 when Asllani was substituted out at halftime.
”When I got another hit on my head in the first half I felt like, ‘Nah, it’s time for someone else to get in,”’ Asllani said. ”I’m proud of the team and proud of myself and just everything right now. I got another knock but everything is worth it right now.”
Sofia Jakobsson had doubled Sweden’s lead before England got into the game with Fran Kirby halving the deficit in the 31st minute when she cut in from the right, beat her defender and curled in off the base of the left post.
Ellen White thought she had tied the score two minutes later but her goal was ruled out after the video review determined there had been a handball. The forward had also had what would have been an equalizing goal ruled out in the semifinal loss to the United States.
”I haven’t really seen it back. I’ve got contact but she shoved me, I don’t know what I’m supposed to do,” White said. ”I didn’t feel like it touched my arm really. I’ve done everything to try and score the goal.
The referee ”didn’t really explain it to me either, which I was frustrated with, but she’s there to make the decision and the decision was that it was handball so I’ve got to take it on the chin. I’m disappointed with a few decisions that has happened but that’s VAR and that’s football so you just got to get on with it,” White said.
Had the goal stood, White would have moved to the top of the goal standings in the race for the Golden Boot before Sunday’s final between the United States and the Netherlands.
White has scored six goals, the same as Alex Morgan – who has her beaten on assists – and one more than Megan Rapinoe.
All but one of Morgan’s goals came in a 13-0 victory over Thailand.
”You still got to score goals whoever you come across,” White said. ”She (Morgan) scored five goals against Thailand and some of them goals were absolute screamers to be honest. Congratulations to either Rapinoe or Morgan, whoever gets the Golden Boot, but very happy to have scored six goals this tournament and to have contributed to my team.”
More AP soccer: https://apnews.com/apf-Soccer and https://twitter.com/AP-Sports
Iran’s latest violation: Enriching uranium beyond a 2015 limit
Iran announced Sunday that it was moving forward with threats to increase its uranium enrichment beyond the levels set by a 2015 multilateral agreement in its latest violation of the deal aimed at stopping the regime from developing nuclear weapons. On Wednesday, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said Iran would „take the next step” and increase its enrichment of uranium, vowing to raise it to „any amount that we want” beginning Sunday unless European nations in the agreement were able to offset U.S. sanctions. And earlier last week, Iran exceeded a limit on how much nuclear fuel it can possess under the agreement. „Be careful with the threats, Iran,” Trump tweeted in response.
California’s biggest earthquake in 20 years
A 7.1 magnitude earthquake was felt across Southern California on Friday night, one day after a 6.4 temblor struck the region. The quake sent rocks crashing down parts of a state highway, ruptured gas lines and cut power to the town of Trona and parts of Ridgecrest, which saw building damage, fires and several injuries from the earlier quake. Some Ridgecrest residents were too afraid to sleep inside, choosing to spend the night on driveways or sidewalks, said Mayor Peggy Breeden. The 7.1 quake — the biggest to hit California in 20 years — was a knockout for Trona, a town struggling to halt its downward decline. „I hope this is not the end,” said Margaret Brush, 91, who claims to be the town’s oldest lifelong resident.
As I meet him ahead of this weekend’s Festival of Speed, the Duke of Richmond (formerly Lord March) is immaculate; freshly barbered, a well-cut brown linen suit, with matching socks and shoes shined like conkers, even his retro tortoiseshell spectacles match. For an ordinary bloke, this is an impossible standard, especially in the heavily ornamented main library of Goodwood House.
“Please tell me, Charles, that you don’t spend Saturday morning swanning around in a linen suit,” I ask.
He grins, but characteristically doesn’t answer, instead telling a long and scarcely credible story (which turns out to be true) about Edward VII setting the linen suit style at Goodwood horse races, which he attended with his mistress, Alice Keppel.
“They dye the fabric, not the yarn,” he says, switching back to linen. “So if you stain it and rub at it, you’ll ruin the suit; you just have to send it to the dry cleaner and hope.”
Who’d want to be his dry cleaner? The nobility don’t hang people for property crimes any more, but you really want to keep on the right side of this aristocratic entrepreneur/impresario. Not that it’s difficult, he’s very approachable.
It’s just that somewhere under the charm is the steel that in the last 25 years has established his family seat of Goodwood House as a cornerstone of the British motorsport season with the summer Festival of Speed and the autumn Circuit Revival, which back up the golf, horse racing and other events that support the sprawling West Sussex estate.
So how big has it got? He gestures, in a manner reminiscent of John Le Mesurier playing Sergeant Wilson in Dad’s Army. Well, how many people do you employ? “720,” he says, grimacing. “We started with 80.”
That was in 1993, with the first running of the Festival of Speed, a year before he took over running the estate from his father. It cost £100,000 to put on and Charles’s close-knit team expected about 3,000 people and got an estimated 25,000.
The rest, as they say, is history, but there have been some weird and amazing moments in the intervening 25 years. Here are some of his personal highlights of Festival of Speed fever…
1993: the badly parked Beatle
Charles namechecks the racing drivers who have been so key to the success of the event: John Surtees, Stirling Moss, Jack Brabham, Dan Gurney and Jackie Stewart among them.
“But in some ways the people I never imagined meeting were the not so obvious ones,” he says. “George Harrison, for example. It was the first year and I’m walking across the stables and there’s this bloody Rocket [a roadster styled like a 1950s grand prix racer] parked in the middle of everything. I had a slight moment of frenzy, because I’m trying to make the place look decent, and said, ‘Whose the hell is this? It’s ridiculous. Get it out of here; tow it away.’ And they said: ‘We think it’s George Harrison’s.’ And I replied: ‘You’ve got to be joking.’ But it was.
“And then I met him and, it shows how relaxed we all were then, I asked: ‘Do you want to drive up the hill?’ And he said: ‘Yeah, yeah, great, love to man.’
“He became a regular visitor and Atty [Charles’s daughter, Lady Alexandra Gordon Lennox] was just eight then and a big Beatles fan. I remember going to her and saying: ‘Darling, I think you should come into the large library, because George Harrison is playing the piano. And she said: ‘Don’t be so ridiculous,’ although in fact George was playing… the harp.”
1997: Thank you Dad – the year it rained
“It was our first really wet year,” says Charles. “It rained all three days solid and you couldn’t see the roads because there was just mud everywhere. It looked like Armageddon, like Woodstock, and I was very worried, because it looked awful. I went to see my father but he was very upbeat, saying what a great success it had all been and that I wasn’t to worry about the park.
“He said the old Sussex Down turf would recover by the time of the horse racing in August, and behold it pretty much was.
“It has never been ploughed so while it gets muddy, it recovers very quickly, although the compacting effect of the big structures is a concern these days and we spend a lot of time aerating the soil.”
2000: They’re taking this far too seriously – the gravity racers
“At first we thought the soapbox races were a really good idea,” says Charles, “and I loved them. In those days all the car companies were up for it. And there were all sorts of regulations, including that they couldn’t spend more than £1,000, there was a weight limit and the whole thing had to fit in a box, but what turned up were the most unbelievable pieces of high-tech equipment – General Motors even came and tested here…
“I was even disappointed when they said they’d run them four at a time; I thought we should run the whole bloody lot together, all 25. Then the day came and I was in batch two in my little Goodwood cart, and we were red-flagged within 50 yards. I got out and walked down and it was dreadful; one poor chap was being loading into an ambulance and there were crashed carts all around…
“The next batch came down and they did exactly the same; they never turned right. The weird thing is there was no noise, it was like being shot out of a circus cannon and, at Molecomb [corner], like watching people committing hara-kiri.
“We had to ban the models with in-line wheels, which were basically skates – I think the Williams one was touching 70mph in practice. Patrick [Head, Williams F1’s technical director] was furious, it was as though the FIA had banned them from a grand prix.
“I wish we still did it in a way, but I suppose it has run its course. I’m always rather touched by the fact that if you go to McLaren, there are all their Grand Prix winners lined up… and there’s the soapbox, too”
2004: Doors to arrival and cross check… the Boeing 747 display
“Tim Miller [a former Red Arrows pilot] had done an excellent job on [organising] the aircraft for us and he said he’d got a mate who flew for South African Airlines who’d developed a display and it was really exciting. After a bit of thought, we said yes.
“Well I was coming out of the door when it flew in and it was below the height of those trees. It was so big it looked almost stationary, with its flaps and wheels down it looked as if it was coming into land.
“I think they can fly at about 100mph without stalling and when it flew over Chichester like that, well, they must have thought he was going to hit the cathedral. It was simply extraordinary.”
2001: All-time high – Hemi Under Glass dragster
“So I heard about it and rang up Bob Riddle [the car’s owner], and said we wanted the car, and would he bring it? So he says: ‘Oh yeah, that sounds good.’ He’s such a lovely bloke. But then the Motor Sports Association [which sanctions motorsport events in the UK] got a bit jumpy about it, so we got the car over to do a little run here. And I took the children.
“It was a Saturday and I didn’t really think too much about it, we were just going to see it run, where’s the drama? So he fires it up and up it went and, golly, it was the best thing I’d ever seen. Amazing, just fantastic, we all loved it.
“Bob has bought the car back lots of times and I still love that car; it’s definitely one of my all-time highlights.”
1999: The record breaker – Nick Heidfeld
Former F1 racer Nick Heidfeld held the Goodwood course record in perpetuity with his scintillating 41.6-second ascent of the 1.16-mile, nine-turn course in a Formula 1 McLaren MP4/13 – it was one of the most exciting drives your correspondent has ever witnessed… Having stood for 20 years, it was eclipsed by Romain Dumas in the Volkswagen I.D. R electric car in 2019.
“Most disappointing for me is that I didn’t see it,” says Charles. “But at the same time it didn’t matter, because I heard it. And I absolutely knew, my God, it was like the whole place was electrified. Suddenly you hear this thing set off, hitting the high notes through every gear – it was different, almost weird because it was as if everyone knew what was happening, like with a great racehorse.
“McLaren had done a lot of work on it and Nick had been told to go for the record. And, you know, he was probably the only person in the world who could have done it. He was so young, just 18, and knew the car inside out and had been up the hill more times than anyone else so he knew it, but he didn’t have an F1 drive so he’d given it a lot of thought to how to improve his time up the hill.
“It’s a pity that had to stop, but these days the teams only come in for a day and don’t take it too seriously. It probably had to go though, apparently Nick hit 160mph on that top corner… It still makes the hairs on the back of my neck stand up.”
This year and every year: Pick up the pieces and do it all again
These days Goodwood’s organisation for various events is so complicated that separate teams handle each one, leapfrogging each other, starting 18 months before each respective event.
“There’s a lot going on and there are lots of strands that are woven together,” says Charles. “So everyone here is very, very busy and we ought to work further ahead than we do.
“But I also like to think it’s a shared enthusiasm, the family and the public. This house has been open to the public since the day it was built, so there’s never been a code of keeping people out and that’s what makes the difference.
“People are generally appreciative, but since the beginning I’ve been asked why we are letting all these people into our garden. But it’s actually one of the best things for me and I say: ‘Well, it’s really that we’re all here together, because we enjoy the same stuff.’
“Besides, it’s no fun doing it on your own…”
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The new record holder is Volkswagen’s ID R electric race car. The vehicle, driven by driver Romain Dumas, broke the record by completing the 1.86-kilometer track (1.15 miles) at Goodwood in the south of England in 41.18 seconds. Dumas then broke his own record the following day by completing the track in 39.90 seconds.