Politics Can Michigan Mail Absentee Forms? Yes. Can Trump Withhold Funds? Unlikely.
Is Michigan mailing absentee ballots to 7.7 million voters?
No. Trump’s first tweet on the issue, on Wednesday morning, inaccurately said that absentee ballots were being mailed to 7.7 million people. But Michigan’s secretary of state, Jocelyn Benson, a Democrat, is sending out applications for absentee ballots for the August primary and the November general election. To receive an actual mail-in ballot, a voter would have to fill out the application form and mail it to a local election office to be verified.
In Nevada, the Republican secretary of state declared the June primary to be an all-mail election, and ballots are being sent to voters across the state.
Is it illegal to send voters applications for absentee ballots in Michigan?
No. Michigan voters approved a constitutional amendment allowing no-excuse voting by mail in 2018 — meaning any voter can now apply for an absentee ballot for any reason — and this is the first election cycle with the policy in place. Anyone in the state can legally print a ballot application and send it to someone; the form is available online.
In the state’s March 10 presidential primary, half of the 2.3 million people who voted used absentee ballots. And in local elections on May 5, 99% of voters used absentee ballots, increasing turnout to 25% from an average of 12% in the last nine May elections.
States received election-assistance funding from the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act, known as the CARES Act. In sending the absentee ballot applications, Benson said she had already spent $4.5 million of the $11.2 million in federal funds allocated to Michigan. She has said that she has the authority to use the money as she deems necessary.
Disputing that authority, a Trump campaign official cited a 2008 Michigan case in which a judge said local clerks could not send absentee ballot applications to a limited universe of voters, but that was before the 2018 amendment. Benson’s application for funds under the CARES Act specifically cited efforts to expand voting by mail, and her spokesman, Jake Rollow, said claims she lacked legal authority to send ballot applications were “false.”
Is voting by mail more susceptible to voter fraud?
Numerous studies have shown that all forms of voting fraud are very rare in the United States. A panel that Trump established to investigate election corruption was disbanded in 2018 after it found no real evidence of fraud.
Experts have said that voting by mail is less secure than voting in person, but it is still extremely rare to see broad cases of voter fraud.
In Washington, a state that votes almost entirely by mail, a study conducted by the Republican secretary of state found that 142 potential cases of improper voting in the 2018 election were referred to county sheriffs and prosecutors for legal action, out of more than 3.1 million ballots cast, which amounted to roughly 0.004% of the electorate.
One of the most prominent recent cases of fraud came in North Carolina’s 9th Congressional District, where a political operative was charged with fraudulently collecting and submitting absentee ballots in an effort to manipulate the election results in favor of the Republican candidate. But such broad schemes are likely to be detected, as this one was, experts say; the district held a do-over election.
Five states — Colorado, Hawaii, Oregon, Utah and Washington — conduct their elections almost entirely by mail, automatically sending all registered voters a ballot. Twenty-nine other states and Washington, D.C., allow for no-excuse absentee voting, meaning anyone can request an absentee ballot for any reason. Trump voted by mail in the last election.
Trump’s misleading claims are “all from a mail-in voter himself in service of a conspiracy theory about the purported relationship between absentee voting and voter fraud — a relationship that has never actually been substantiated in anything other than marginal cases,” said Stephen Vladeck, a professor at the University of Texas School of Law.
Can the president withhold federal funding over absentee voting?
Unlikely. Much of the money is already out the door, and legal experts questioned whether Trump even had the authority to block the funding.
Since the 2016 election, Congress has disbursed at least $380 million to states for election security and upgrades, and it appropriated another $425 million in the latest budget deal. The CARES Act provided another $400 million, and the Election Assistance Commission said in early April that it would expedite distribution of that funding.
Legislation for the 2020 fiscal year and the CARES Act “make very clear the funds can be used for vote-by-mail,” said Myrna Pérez, director of the voting rights and elections program at the Brennan Center for Justice. “For a very long time, it had bipartisan support.”
Michigan’s and Nevada’s actions “certainly seem consistent with statutory intent, making it difficult for the president to claim that he could legally not spend the funds,” said Roy Meyers, a professor of political science at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. “And evidence that the president was withholding funds out of spite or a desire for vengeance regarding an issue unrelated to the intended purpose of the funds would further weaken his legal case.”
Vladeck said: “Not only are states well within their rights to take reasonable measures to distribute applications for absentee ballots, but withholding federal funding in retaliation for doing so is a violation of the Spending Clause, which doesn’t allow the federal government to coerce states through such threats.”
If Trump withheld money, Vladeck said, such action could also violate a federal criminal statute that “specifically bars using appropriations to interfere with individuals’ right to vote.”
The Impoundment Control Act of 1974, established after former President Richard M. Nixon refused to release congressionally appropriated funds to programs he opposed, requires the president to seek approval from Congress to withhold money. (The Government Accountability Office said in January that Trump violated this law when he froze security assistance to Ukraine.)
Even if Trump had the authority to block the funds, it may already be too late. Nearly all of the funding for the 2020 fiscal year, which ends in September, has been accounted for, noted Howard Gleckman of the Tax Policy Center, who called Trump’s tweets “an empty threat.”
Why the focus on Michigan and Nevada?
As Benson pointed out in a tweet, Michigan is not alone in its decision to distribute applications for mail-in ballots; states helmed by Republican governors and secretaries of state — like Iowa, Georgia, Nebraska and West Virginia — have also done so amid the pandemic.
But Michigan and Nevada are battleground states, the first of which Trump won by just 0.23% in 2016. Michigan and its Democratic governor in particular have become the object of presidential fascination, mentioned dozens of times by Trump on Twitter and in remarks since the coronavirus outbreak. Recent polls show that Trump is trailing former Vice President Joe Biden in the state.
Does mail balloting benefit Democrats over Republicans?
Numerous studies have found little evidence of partisan advantage for either side from expanding mail voting and no-excuse absentee balloting. Instead of favoring one side or the other, recent results have reflected the oscillating nature of elections.
A 2014 study in Colorado, which had just put in place a vote-by-mail system, found that Republicans outperformed their predicted turnout by a higher margin than Democrats. In the election that year, Sen. Cory Gardner, a Republican, beat the incumbent, Mark Udall
A 2016 study in Utah found that Democrats had gained a slight advantage over predicted turnout in counties that had switched to all-mail voting.
Two elections in the past two months saw a huge surge in voting by mail, and the partisan benefits were not consistent.
Though some voters stood in lines for hours to cast ballots in Wisconsin’s Supreme Court race last month, more than 1 million people voted by mail. Jill Karofsky, the Democratic-backed candidate, won by 11 percentage points in an election that had been expected to be very close.
A special election last week in California’s 25th Congressional District was conducted largely by mail. Mike Garcia, the Republican candidate, won by nearly 10 points, far from the razor-thin margin most had predicted.
This article originally appeared in The New York Times.
© 2020 The New York Times Company
An American television host has called Donald Trump „sick” for promoting a conspiracy theory that her husband may have been involved in a murder.
Mr Trump attacked Mika Brzezinski and her husband and co-presenter Joe Scarborough, a former Republican congressman.
In 2001 Lori Klausutis, 28, an aide to Mr Scarborough, was found dead in his office in Florida.
The coroner found she suffered from a heart condition and had collapsed, hitting her head.
Miss Klausutis’s death was ruled an accident, there was never any suspicion of foul play, and Mr Scarborough was not in Florida at the time.
The co-presenters have been high-profile critics of the president for some time.
On Twitter Mr Trump wrote: „When will they open a Cold Case on the Psycho Joe Scarborough matter in Florida. Did he get away with murder? Some people think so. Why did he leave Congress so quietly and quickly? Isn’t it obvious? What’s happening now? A total nut job!”
He asked why „guys like Low Ratings Psycho Joe Scarborough are allowed to walk the streets? Open Cold Case!”
Ms Brzezinski responded: „Donald, you’re a sick person. You’re really a cruel, sick, disgusting person.”
She called on Twitter to take down the tweets.
She said: „He’s once again tweeting conspiracy theories about Joe, falsely accusing him of murder. You [Twitter] should be ashamed of yourself.”
School buses with four out of five seats empty, daily temperature checks, students in school buildings just one or two days a week (but for a longer school year) — these are some of the drastic changes likely coming for many of the more than 50 million public school students this fall. With the coronavirus expected to remain a threat through at least next spring and a reliance on “distance learning” likely to continue, the burden will fall most heavily on the neediest students, living in homes lacking computers, internet connectivity or adults at home during the school day, and school officials nationwide are grappling with how to ensure they don’t fall further behind.
School districts are weighing the limitations inherent to distance learning as they consider models for next year, according to Daniel Domenech, executive director of the School Superintendents Association. For example, some school districts are planning to prioritize elementary-age students for in-person spots because administrators believe barriers to online learning can be more easily overcome by older students. Other districts are considering models that will prioritize in-school spots for the neediest students, Domenech said.
And with state tax revenues in free fall, many districts are scrambling to find money for necessities such as added nurses, personal protective equipment and additional buses to bring students to school safely.
“The cost is going to be incredible, and where’s the money going to be?” Domenech said. “Because right now what most districts are looking at are significant cuts in their budgets.” School superintendents, he said, “are not sleeping well at night” as they struggle to confront these challenges.
The official newspaper of North Korea has denied that the regime’s leaders can magically bend time and space, putting to bed a long tradition used to idolise the mystical powers of Kim Jong-un and former leader Kim Jong-il.
In the latest sign that the secretive regime is turning away from myth-making about its leaders, the Rodong Sinmun newspaper this week denied that the Kim family are masters of „chukjibeop”, a method of folding space and travelling great distances in a short period of time.
Chukjibeop is one of the myths that has been used by the North to deify its leaders.
The newspaper, the organ of the North’s ruling party, said: „In realistic terms, a person cannot suddenly disappear and reappear by folding space.”
On Thursday, an official at South Korea’s unification ministry said that the current regime’s trend of demystification is „noteworthy”.
„It appears to stress patriotism and love for the people rather than mystification of the leaders,” the official told Yonhap news agency.
Since Mr Kim failed to reach an agreement in a second summit with US President Donald Trump in Hanoi last year, he has focused on showing more of his „human” side, urging the North Korean people to stay away from the mystification of their leader.
„Mystifying a leader’s revolutionary activity and appearance would result in covering the truth,” Mr Kim was quoted as saying in state media in March last year after the breakdown of negotiations with the US.
„Absolute loyalty would spring up when (they) are mesmerised by the leader humanly and comradely.”
Earlier this month, Mr Kim appeared to make his first appearance in public for 20 days following rumours about his health.
Depending on who you talk to, the current coronavirus pandemic might be the natural product of evolution, the result of a lab accident or a biological weapon designed by the Chinese. Lockdown measures to impose social distancing restrictions are responsible measures designed to protect public safety or they’re part of a Democratic Party plot to destroy the economy in order to diminish President Trump’s chances of reelection in November. Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease specialist, is either a respected medical professional or devious member of the “deep state” who is using the coronavirus (which he may or may not have helped create) to control the public through a mandatory vaccination.
And those are just some of the narratives that are spreading within the United States.
In countries around the world, equally implausible ideas are circulating, derived in part from their particular political and historical situations, but also cross-pollinating with a wide array of conspiracy theories, misinformation and state-sponsored content, ranging from blatant propaganda to more subtle disinformation campaigns. In some cases, the dearth of verifiable information has resulted in the spread of misinformation by fairly reputable and well-intentioned sources. The coronavirus “infodemic,” however, has allowed a host of malign actors — from the Russian government to domestic extremists to scam artists peddling bogus cures — to exploit existing societal fissures for their own political or personal gain.
“All of that just contributes to this massive, unstoppable flow of information that would be impossible to contend with even for the most resilient society,” said Nina Jankowicz, a fellow at the Wilson Center in Washington, D.C.
In fact, Jankowicz told Yahoo News that other than in countries such as Turkmenistan, where the government has imposed a complete clampdown on any and all information related to the coronavirus, “I can’t imagine a country that would have no proliferation of conspiracy theories or disinformation at this time.”
Disinformation feeds on anxiety and promotes emotional and irrational responses. “I think it’s a common misconception that disinformation creates some sort of new feeling in people,” Jankowicz says. “Often it’s really weaponizing preexisting feelings, or certainly amplifying them.
“So the anti-vax groups, for instance, are going to be more likely to buy into this narrative about the vaccine being somehow an instrument for global control. The folks who are distrustful of the United States, whether that’s in the Middle East, or in China, or Russia, are going to be pawns of their nation’s propaganda machines.”
You can see that phenomenon at work in internet metadata. In an interview with Politico last month, Joel Meyer of Predata, a predictive analytics firm, said that since the beginning of the pandemic, his firm has observed an increase in traffic from Persian and Hindi-language internet users to websites that are critical of Western medicine and promote alternative healing methods, including unproven supplements. At the same time, Meyer said that “in European languages, including French, German and Italian, anti-vaxxer attention has really spiked recently.”
“We’re seeing interest rise to unprecedented levels in alternative medicines and treatments,” he told Politico, concluding that, based on the analytics, “that type of disinformation is sinking in, it’s having an effect.”
Here’s how the pandemic of conspiracy theories is playing out in different countries:
The German public’s general willingness to comply with strict national lockdown measures — along with a number of other initiatives including widespread testing and aggressive contact tracing — have been credited contributing to the country’s relatively low coronavirus death rate, despite reporting among the highest numbers of confirmed cases. According to the latest data from the Johns Hopkins University as of Tuesday afternoon, Germany had 176,551 confirmed coronavirus cases, falling just below France’s 180,051 with the eighth-largest number of cases worldwide. Germany’s death toll, however, was just over 8,000, compared to 28,025 in France.
In light of this apparent success, over the last several weeks, the German government has begun to slowly lift many of its coronavirus restrictions, allowing schools, shops and playgrounds to reopen, as well as churches and museums. Even the country’s national soccer league was permitted to resume its season over the weekend, albeit without fans in the stands and with elaborate social distancing rules both on (no elbowing allowed) and off the field (mandatory pre-season quarantine and regular testing).
And yet, despite all this, protests against the country’s lockdown measures have been on the rise — growing from just a few dozen marchers last month, to more than 10,000 participating in demonstrations across Germany this past weekend.
Germany’s recent protests against coronavirus restrictions have attracted a hodgepodge of supporters from across the political and ideological spectrums, from far-left anticapitalists to neo-Nazis, anti-vaccine advocates and regular citizens simply concerned about the economy. According to a recent New York Times report, members of Germany’s far right, including the nationalist and anti-immigrant Alternative for Germany party, and other extreme groups appear to be leading the mobilization effort behind these demonstrations in an effort to capitalize on the shared discontent by these seemingly disparate factions. Yahoo News has reported similar concerns expressed by experts in the United States that anti-lockdown protests here are being co-opted by extreme anti-government and right-wing militia groups.
“Conspiracy theories have always had the potential to bring different people together because they are united in a common enemy,” said Pia Lamberty, a doctoral student at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, in Germany, who studies the psychology of conspiracy beliefs. As an example, she said, the anti-vaccination movement brings together “alternative eco-parents, people from the middle of society and right-wing extremists.”
But there are aspects of the recent anti-lockdown demonstrations that appear to be directly influenced by German history and culture, starting with comparisons she says many conspiracy theorists have made between coronavirus restrictions and the policies of the Nazi era, as well as claims that coronavirus vaccinations will soon become mandatory. Lamberty said that some protesters have even gone so far as to wear yellow Star of David patches or arm bands like the ones European Jews were forced to wear under the Nazi regime, evoking Holocaust imagery to suggest that those who oppose vaccines or believe in conspiracy theories are somehow facing similar oppression under the current government’s coronavirus restrictions.
Lamberty said that in the former East Germany, a Soviet satellite during the Cold War, protesters are more likely to compare lockdown measures with Communism than in the West.
Lamberty and other German researchers have tracked the recent rise in conspiracy theories that echo those that have flourished in the United States, many of which center around distrust of a small group of elites, including medical experts and public health officials, believed to be conspiring against the public good for their own gain. Such conspiracy theories have recently gotten a boost on social media from German celebrities like singer Xavier Naidoo and Atilla Hildmann, a popular vegan chef and cookbook author.
Lamberty also noted that, in recent weeks, “the QAnon conspiracy theories, which had not played a major role in Germany before, had started spreading more and more in the country.” The QAnon movement is built around a series of cryptic messages that purport to describe a struggle by Donald Trump to defeat an international conspiracy of elites and “deep state” bureaucrats engaged in kidnapping, abusing, torturing and killing children.
Citizens of the U.K. were among the first to demonstrate the potential real-world effects of the coronavirus “disinfodemic,” as rumors spread linking the virus to the spread of 5G cellular technology, apparently leading to an outbreak of arson against the new infrastructure. As of April 21, AP reported that “Some 50 fires targeting cell towers and other equipment have been reported in Britain this [last] month, leading to three arrests. Telecom engineers have been abused on the job 80 times, according to trade group Mobile UK, making the U.K. the nucleus of the attacks.”
Though scientists have repeatedly debunked claims that COVID-19 is somehow caused by 5G technology, the conspiracy theory has continued to resonate with the British public and merge with anti-lockdown protests.
So far, the British versions of these demonstrations have remained relatively small compared to their counterparts in Germany and the United States. Over the weekend, former Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn’s brother, Piers, was among 19 protesters arrested at a gathering of about 50 in London in defiance of social distancing measures. According to the Guardian, prior to his arrest, Corbyn had used a megaphone to promote the discredited 5G conspiracy theories, claim that “vaccination is not necessary” and declare that the coronavirus pandemic is a “pack of lies to brainwash you and keep you in order.”
After initially resisting the implementation of nationwide lockdown measures, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson recently issued a new set of rules designed to continue facilitating as much social distancing as possible, while allowing those who can’t work from home to go back to work, with the exception of hospitality and nonessential retail workers.
The Middle East
Jankowicz pointed to the Middle East as an example of a region where cultural and religious beliefs and political convictions including distrust of powerful outside forces, especially the United States, have allowed a mix of conspiracy theories, misinformation and state-sponsored propoganda to flourish.
During a panel discussion on this topic last week, Merissa Khurma, project manager for Middle East special initiatives at the Wilson Center, outlined the most prevalent examples of coronavirus-related misinformation that have been circulating across the Middle East. Among them are a number of bogus claims about the coronavirus that have proliferated primarily through social media, including baseless warnings that the virus can cause infertility in men, and unproven methods for preventing infection, such as eating garlic, drinking warm water every 15 minutes, and praying five times a day.
Khurma noted that conspiracy theories about the origins of the virus, including deliberately false claims that it was created by the U.S. as part of an economic war on China, have been propagated through more “official networks” such as the Iranian government as well as Arabic-language TV stations owned by China and Russia. Other conspiracy theories have also been spread by journalists repeating unfounded claims.
“According to a columnist in a Saudi newspaper, the virus is an effort by Western pharmaceuticals to profit by selling the cure and a vaccine,” said Khurma.
Another conspiracy theory, which was tweeted by Noura Al-Mutairi, an Emirati writer for the popular Arabic language newspaper, Al Bayan, suggests that the coronavirus was actually created as part of a plot by the Qatari government to sabotage the 2020 World Expo in Dubai, which has been postponed due to the pandemic, as well as Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 plan to restructure the country’s economy.
Finally, Khurma pointed to another apparent piece of propaganda recently highlighted by the Washington Post, which purports that the Egyptian government has developed a cure for the coronavirus and is already “saving the world” from the pandemic “conspiracy” propagated by the West.
Russian propaganda has been capitalizing on the pandemic to advance Moscow’s long-standing goal of embarrassing Western governments and disrupting American and European societies.
According to a report in Foreign Policy by Amy MacKinnon from mid-February, claims suggesting the virus originated in the U.S. have been circulating in Russian media since at least late January.
“The overarching theme of the stories that appear across the Russian media, from fringe websites to prime-time television, is that the virus is the product of U.S. labs, intended to kneecap China’s economic development,” wrote MacKinnon. Foreshadowing some of the narratives that would continue to spread around the world, including within the U.S., she wrote that “some articles have flirted with the idea that Bill Gates or Kremlin nemesis George Soros might have had a hand in the outbreak,” while other theories proposed that the virus might be a biological weapon, or part of a money-making plot by pharmaceutical companies.
Though MacKinnon noted that, as of mid-February, the primary audience for this propaganda was “largely domestic,” the Kremlin soon expanded its coronavirus disinformation campaign beyond Russian borders. Audiences in Eastern Europe, and specifically Lithuania, have reportedly been hit with an onslaught of false or misleading messages designed to stoke fears about the virus and promote negative sentiments toward the U.S. and NATO. Meanwhile, the European Union has accused Russia of spreading fake, contradictory and confusing reports about the coronavirus in English, Spanish, German, Italian and French as part of a “significant disinformation campaign” to create panic and sow distrust, a charge supported by U.S. intelligence and the State Department. The Kremlin has denied the allegations.
According to U.S. officials, Russian propaganda about the coronavirus has been echoed by China, as well as Iran, which have waged similar disinformation campaigns while deflecting criticism of their handling of the pandemic.
In March, the Washington Post listed Brazil among several countries where citizens and government health officials had begun sounding the alarm about the use of WhatsApp, the Facebook-owned encrypted messaging service, to spread conspiracy theories and misinformation about the coronavirus, including inaccurate claims about how the virus is spread and ways to treat it.
More than two months later, as Brazil’s count of coronavirus cases continues to climb, the country’s health officials, along with many state governors, have found themselves fighting another, arguably more powerful source of misinformation about the virus: President Jair Bolsonaro.
Bolsonaro is among few remaining world leaders who still refuses to take the coronavirus seriously, even as his country is quickly becoming one of the epicenters of the global pandemic.
Wednesday evening, the Brazilian Health Ministry announced that the country had recorded 19,951 new coronavirus cases within the last 24 hours, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 291,579. The health ministry also reported an additional 888 coronavirus deaths, bringing the nationwide death toll to 18,859 as of Wednesday evening. Earlier this week, Brazil surpassed Spain, Italy and the U.K. as the site of the world’s third-largest coronavirus outbreak.
Despite this, Bolsonaro has continued to dismiss the severity of the virus, which he has referred to as “a little flu,” and repeatedly flouted the social distancing recommendations of both Brazilian and international health experts. Disagreements over Bolsonaro’s approach to the crisis have resulted in the departure of two health ministers within the last month.
While recent polling shows that two-thirds of Brazilians support social distancing measures that have been implemented by many state governors per the recommendations of health experts, Bolsonaro has been among the loudest voices calling for businesses to reopen. He publicly defies his own health ministry’s social distancing guidelines with regular, in-person gatherings with large numbers of supporters, and has become a vocal advocate for the widespread use of chloroquine — a variant of the unproven anti-malaria drug also touted by President Trump — despite the lack of evidence of its effectiveness as a treatment for the coronavirus.